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Rules for determining the winner

This article explains the different ways to decide a undecided game: Toss, touchdown, rouge, away goals, golden goal, silver goal and, of course, the kicks from the penalty mark.   The toss The toss was for a long time the common method to determine a winner when a deciding game ended in a draw. It was listed in numerous rules of public schools, from the beginning in the FA Rules (exception: 1866/67), in the Sheffield FA Rules from 1871 and in the Laws of the Game of The IFAB from 1886 to 1970. Since 1898 the toss was only used for the latter, if the game was drawn after the extra time.   Touchdown & Rouge Other variants in the 19th century to determine a winner in a tie were rouges and touchdowns. Touchdown The touchdown was part of the Cambridge University Rules of 1863 (not in previous editions) and the FA Rules in the season 1866/67. The FA Rules copied the touchdown from the Cambridge Rules, but revised it again after one year. In …

Law 17: The corner kick

Note: Until the FA Rules, there is no distinction between (early forms of the) goal kick and corner kick. The same laws always apply for the restart of the game as soon as the ball is behind the goal – outside the goalposts. The differentiation between goal kick and corner kick nowadays was introduced 1867/1872.     Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1857 (Eton Field Game) After the ball has crossed the goal line, the game is restarted with a bully opposite the point where the ball had gone out. 1858 (Sheffield FC) Goal kick from a point 25 yd behind the goal. 1858 (Harrow Football) When the ball has crossed the goal line, it must be kicked directly on the field. There, it must be first touched be the attacking team before the defending team is allowed to touch it. 1862 (Blackheath FC) When the ball is behind the goal line, the game restarts with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal. 1862 (The …

Law 16: The goal kick

Note: Until the FA Rules, there is no distinction between (early forms of the) goal kick and corner kick. The same laws always apply for the restart of the game as soon as the ball is behind the goal – outside the goalposts. The differentiation between goal kick and corner kick nowadays was introduced 1867/1872.   Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1857 (Eton Field Game) After the ball is behind the goal, the game will be restarted with a bully opposite the point where the ball had gone out. 1858 (Sheffield FC) Goal kick from a point 25 yd behind the goal. 1858 (Harrow Football) When the ball is behind the goal it must be kicked directly on the field. There, it must be first touched be the attacking team before the defending team is allowed to touch it. 1862 (Blackheath FC) When the ball is behind the goal the game restart with a place kick from the goal line by the team that owned the goal. 1862 (The Simplest Game) …

Law 15: The throw-in

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1857 (Eton Field Game) Choice between throw-in or a bully at the opposite of the field. 1858 (Sheffield FC) If the ball went into touch, the person who touched the ball first was allowed to throw the ball into field from the point where the ball went out. The Sheffield FC Rules also fixed that the distance between all other players must be at least 6 yd until the ball was back in play. 1858 (Harrow Football) Kick-in (nothing else is mentioned). 1862 (The Simplest Game) Kick-in from the point where the ball went out. 1862 (Blackheath FC) Throw-in from the point of touching the ball. 1863 (FA) If the ball went into touch, the person who touched the ball first was allowed to throw the ball into field from the point where the ball went out. The FA Rules fixed, too, that the throw-in had to be thrown at right angles. 1866 (FA) The player performing the throw-in must not touch the ball again until it was touched …

Law 14: The penalty kick

  Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1891 (IFAB) Deliberately tripping or holding an opposing player, or deliberately handling the ball shall be penalized on appeal within the penalty area with a penalty kick. penalty area: within 12 yards of his own goal-line penalty mark: a line 12 yds in front of every goal. The penalty kick can be taken from any point 12 yards from the goal-line. It is specified that – with the exception of the player taking the penalty kick and the opposing goal-keeper – all player stand at least 6 yd behind the ball. The goalkeeper may approach the ball up to 6 yd until the penalty kick is taken. The ball is in play as soon as it’s kicked (all IFA). 1892 (IFAB) Repeated touching of the ball by the player taking the kick is prohibited (SFA). 1893 (IFAB) Pushing an opponent within the penalty area is added as an offence that is punished with a penalty kick (FA). 1896 (IFAB) Charging an opponent from behind …

Law 13: Free kicks

  Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1858 (Harrow Football) A free kick is a reward for fair catch, if you additionally call „three yards“. If in Harrow the ball was caught near the opponent’s goal, you could jump 3 yd for reaching the goal or went back and take a free kick as a place kick. 1858 (Sheffield FC) A free kick ist a reward for having first touched the ball after it into the touch or behind the goal. This reward was, depending on the place a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. When taking a free kick, all players have to stay 6 yd away from the ball or stand on the goal line until the ball is kicked. All free kicks are indirect free kicks. 1863 (Cambridge University) A free kick is a reward for fair catch. The kick may be taken in any manner. All players must be at least 10 yd away from the ball until the ball is kicked and no player is offside. 1863 …

Law 12: Fouls and misconduct

Unfair, violent and dangerous conduct Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1856 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking. 1857 (Eton Field Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking. 1858 (Harrow Football) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking. 1858 (Sheffield FC) The first draft of the Sheffield FC Rules allows a player who performs a place kick (but not a goal kick) to be charged during the kick. This passage was deleted in the published Sheffield FC Rules. Holding and kicking a player was forbidden. 1862 (Blackheath FC) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking, except attacking an opponent while running. 1862 (The Simplest Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking. 1862 (Eton Field Game) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.) 1863 (Shrewsbury School) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.) 1863 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking. 1863 (FA) Charging, tripping, intentional kicking, holding, pushing. 1867 (Sheffield FA) Pushing, kicking, tripping. 1869 (FA) Attacking of a player from behind (Upton Park FC) 1871 (Sheffield FA) Attacking …

Law 11: Offside

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1847 and following years (Eton Field Game) Offside: „Sneaking“ is when the attacking player is between the ball and the opposing goal and there are three or fewer opponents in front of him/her. Enabled a combination game here early on. 1858 (Sheffield FC) Offside: Someone who stand behind the touch line and goal line, is offside. 1858 (Harrow Football) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball. 1862 (The Simplest Game) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball. 1862 (Blackheath FC) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball. 1863 (Shrewsbury School) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball. 1863 (Cambridge University) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent goal line than the ball. 1863 (FA) Offside: was everyone who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball. 1866 (FA) Offside: was everyone who is closer …

Law 10: Determining the outcome of a match

A goal is obtained when the ball crosses the goal line between the goal posts and – after their introduction – below the crossbar or rope. All football codes have that in common, whereby some codes from the first decades of the 19th century also allow the throwing of a goal. In fact, this description is not to be found in all rules and regulations, as it was all too unambiguous. Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known) 1863 (FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts from the field. 1866 (FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the goal rope (as a height limit). 1867 (Sheffield FA) A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the goal band (as a height limit). 1872 (FA) Touching the goalposts is not a goal (Wanderers FC). It is important if the ball jumps from there behind the goal line …

Law 9: The ball in and out of play

Until 1938, this laws comprised descriptions of the continuation of the game after the ball went into touch or behind the goal. The addition of throw-in, goal kick and corner kick made this obsolete. Since 1938, this law comprises a description when the ball is in and out the play – and that can be quickly described: If he leaves the field or the referee interrupts the game. This was described in more detail in the FA Rules from 1886 onwards in several rules. A brief summary: Ball in play Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1887 (IFAB) Addition: A ball on the line is in play. 1896 (IFAB) Addition: The ball remains in play even if it hits the corner flag, referee or assistant referee (FA).   Ball out of play Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1888 (IFAB) The ball is out of play when it crosses the touch line or goal line, either on the ground or in the air. 1895 (IFAB) Addition: The …

Law 8: The start and restart of play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1847 and following years (Eton Field Game) Kick-off at the beginning: bully. At half time the ends are changed. 1858 (Harrow Football) Toss, except in school games, then the team of the headmaster has the side choice. Toss decides which team has the kick-off from the centre of the field. At half time the ends are changed. Kick-off from the middle of the field, halfway between the two goals. 1862 (The Simplest Game) Kick-off at the beginning: from the middle of the field, halfway between the two goals. All other players are at least 4 yd away from the ball until it has been kicked. 1862 (Sheffield FC / FA) & 1863 (FA) Toss. Toss decides which team has the kick-off from the centre of the field (Sheffield FA until 1878, FA until 1873). At every goal or a goalless half the ends are changed. Also the restart starts with the kick-off from the centre of the field; the kick-off after a goal from the team who had …

Law 7: The duration of the match

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) Except for the codices of Sheffield FC and later Sheffield FA, no code specifies the game and half time durations for almost the entire 19th century, nor the FA. 1858 (Sheffield FC and FA) The duration is 60 minutes. (After the Sheffield FA had adopted the FA Rules (1878), there were 19 years of no law that regulated the duration.) 1897 (IFAB) The duration of the game shall be 90 minutes, unless otherwise mutually agreed. The interval at half-time shall not exceed five minutes, except by consent of the referee. 1938 (IFAB) More accurate addition that the playing time is divided into two 45 minutes. Further addition that lost time is determined by the referee and is replayed at the end of each half and that the playing time for the execution of a penalty shot is extended. An abandoned game must always be replayed completely. 1959 (IFAB) Change: A abandoned match does not have to be replayed if the rules of the competition in …

Law 6: The other match officials

  Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1891 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Introduction of assistant referees. Duty: to decide when the ball is out of play, and which side has the throw-in, to decide which side is entitled to the corner kick or the goalkick. In addition, the referee has the duty, to report every undue interference by an assistant referee to the National Association. (FA). 1897 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional duty: to assist in carrying out the game according to the Laws. 1902 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Change: In case of undue interference by an assistant referee, the referee has the power to order him off and substitute him (FA). 1938 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Supplement that the assistant referees receive their flags from those who own the field of play (FAW). 1961 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Added task: They also indicate when the ball is out of play (FIFA). 1982 (IFAB) Assistant referees: Additional duty: to indicate when a substitution is desired. The notice that the referee may dispense the assistant referees from their …

Law 5: The referee

Umpires already existed in the first half of the 19th century at the football match of private schools. For Eton it is said that there was a mediating, judicially instance (1845) 1)Cf. Manganese, J. A.: Prologue. In: J. A. Manganese (Hg): Sport in Europe. Politics, Class, Gender. Preston 1999. p. iv-viii, here p. vii., which sat outside the playing field and act on invocation of the captains (a kind of player-trainer-manager) after they could not agree. The association game at the end of the 19th century was neither fairer nor more unfair than it is today, so a referee was necessary. For already in this century there were numerous attempts to deceive the umpires and referee, be it by concealed fouls, constant „hand!“ and „offside!“ calls and other actions that have not changed at all. „You know very well that that last shot was not a goal,“ said an unknown referee to a player at the end of the 19th century. The player replied: „Of course I do, but I didn’t know that you did, …

Law 4: The player’s equipment

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1st half in 19th century The early rules and regulations of English public schools and universities do not give any information about players‘ equipment except for the colour of their clothing. However, coloured drawings of football matches from the half century of the 19th century show that jerseys, overknee length shorts and boots were already used as clothing. If the jersey and shorts were not uniform or similar in colour, the teams wore different caps or one team wore a (non-uniform) cap, the other has none. So spectators could recognize the players, the colour of their caps was printed in newspaper reports in addition to the names of the players. 1)Cf. Brown, Paul: Please do not strain the ropes – a football programme from 1875. In: Goalpost. URL: http://www.goalpostbooks.co.uk/please-do-not-strain-the-ropes/. 1858 (Sheffield FC) Colours: Sheffield FC mainly played in the first years matches within the club. Different coloured caps were prescribed to distinguish the teams (red or blue). With the foundation of the Sheffield FA this law …

Law 3: The number of players

Number of Players Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) Diverse reports about football matches before 1870 There wasn’t a written regulation how many players of a team had to participate in a game at the same time and how many were allowed to do so. There were the variants with eight players and with eleven players or only the requirement that there must be an equal number of players on both sides. At least in the FA, however, the variant with eleven players seems to have been usual. 1849, Surrey FC Eleven players. 1857 (Sheffield FC) No information. 1897 (IFAB) Eleven players. 1923 (IFAB) There may also be less than 11 players on one side, but no more than 11 players (FA). 1924 (IFAB) The clause on removing injured players refers only to seriously injured players. Only then should the referee interrupt the game. If, according to the opinion of the referee, there is a slight injury, he should not interrupt the game (SFA). 1938 (IFAB) One of the 11 players …

Law 2: The Ball

  Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1883 (IFAB) The circumference had to be 27-28 ins before the beginning of the game. 1880s (IFAB) The home club provides the ball. The ball must be returned to the club after the match. 1889 (IFAB) The weight must be 13-15 oz at the beginning of the game. 1937 (IFAB) Weight increase to 14-16 ounces. 1905 (IFAB) The ball must not have anything on it that can injure a player (FA). 1938 (IFAB) Supplement that the weight refers to the start of the game. Supplement that the shape of the ball is spherical. If the ball becomes defective, it’s replaced. The game continues with a dropped ball at the point where the ball becomes deflective. 1954 (IFAB) Addition that the ball may only be exchanged after the referee’s approval (FAW). 1965 (IFAB) Supplement that other, not further named materials are allowed if they are approved (IFAB). 1967 (IFAB) The pressure of the ball must correspond to the air pressure at sea-level (= 15 lb./sq. …

Law 1: The Field of Play

The law describes the measures of the field with its marking lines, the goal dimensions, the measures of the centre line and centre mark, the corner arcs, the goal area, the penalty area and the technical area.   Field dimensions Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known) 1858 (Harrow Football) length: 150 yd, width: 100 yd („in House matches“) 1863 (Cambridge University) l: 150 yd, w: 100 yd. 1863 (Shrewsbury School) l: 150 yd, w: 120 yd. 1863 (FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd. 1867 (Sheffield FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd. 1875 (FA) l: 100-200 yd, w: 50-100 yd (Royal Engineers). 1897 (IFAB) l: 100-130 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International matches: l: 110-120 yd, w: 70-80 yd. 1997 (IFAB) The field must be rectangular and the touch line is the longer side. Additional information in the metric system. Determination of the height and shape of the flag posts. 2008 (IFAB) Addition where flag posts must be placed. International matches: l: 100-120 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International A matches: l: …