All posts filed under: English

Cards for Teamofficials 2020/21

Cards for teamofficials 2020/21. An Overview. Cautions as sending-offs for team officials in the 1st Bundesliga (m), the 2nd Bundesliga (m) and the German Cup (m) as well as the Champions League (m) and Europa League (m) in the 2020/21 season. Unfortunately, there are no sources for women’s football that provide the equivalent information. For the last season see here: Cards for teamofficials 2019/20 (only 🇩🇪).

Female football referee in male football matches

Oleksandra Ardasheva She was born in 1987 in Ukraine and is part of Kateryna Monzul’s refereeing team, assisting her in the Premjer-Liha since 2018. She was also part of the first all-female team in Europe as an assistant, which led a professional men’s game in November 2020. Marie-Soleil Beaudoin Born in 1982, the Canadian became a referee at the age of 20 and is now a FIFA referee. The Professor of Physiology and Biophysics has been leading matches in the USL (United Soccer League) Championship (= 2nd division) since June 2015, and in the newly founded Canadian professional league, the CPL (Canadian Premier League), since 2019. 

Goal referees in football

Recently I had a short discussion on Twitter with Ben van Maaren and Javier Bravo about goal referees. @ClioMZ Hello Petra, please read this thread. My Spanish friend, Javier Bravo, sent me this photo of a “juez de gol”, a goal line referee. They were active for about 20 years in Spain, from the 1910s till the 1930s. Isn’t that fascinating? Have you ever heard of this? — RefBooks (@RefereeingBooks) July 12, 2020 I knew until now that they were used in the sport association of workers in Germany in the 1920s. And that the minute from AGM 1893 by The IFAB mentioned them. But I only suspected that these are not the only two mentions. Goals are too important for football – both economically and psychologically. But the fact that goal referees were appointed in Spain for probably more than 25 years, and that they were in the top league, also surprised me. • In the minute of The IFAB there is no criticism to the RFEF, the Spanish Football Federation. The association …

Cards in football – when were they introduced?

Cards in football were introduced not until the end of the 1960s. Cautions and dismissals were given orally. This was not always easy in international games due to language barriers. At the 1966 World Cup, German referee Rudolf Kreitlein tried in vain to send Argentine player Antonio Rattín off the field. But he Rattín did not understand or did not want to understand. He was a whole head taller than referee Kreitlein (who measured only 1.60 m / 5’3”) and finally had to be escorted from the field by the police.

Women’s football in Germany over 50 years ago

Women’s football was first permitted in Germany 50 years ago by the DFB. The association is celebrating this in 2020 and I watch the festivities with a suspicious eye. Because I fear that they will fuel the myth that there was virtually no women’s football in Germany before 1970. But that is by no means the case. This is evident simply from the fact that the DFB banned women’s football in 1955. Why should it have banned something that virtually did not exist back then? DFB should not celebrate “50 years of women’s football”, but “50 years ago we were open enough to allow women’s football”. But … Even that is not true. The scepticism, teasing and aversion were not suddenly history from October 31, 1970 onwards.

Football technology – A brief overview

Football technology has not been used in the game itself for very long. Football technology is becoming increasingly important. Football & technology have been together for 100 years. On the one hand, they have stimulated each other, on the other hand, they have led to discussions. For example, radio and television broadcasts contributed to the popularity of football and the enthusiasm for the sport had a positive effect on the media. On the other hand, discussions about slow motion in television broadcasts or the use of these as video evidence have been going on since the 1960s. Here is a brief overview: GLT (Goal line technology) After two years of intensive testing, The IFAB chose Hawkeye technology at a special meeting following the 2012 European Championship.

Football Offside: When was the offside rule introduced?

Football offside – the history started in the public schools of England in the 19th century, when football was a mix of rugby and soccer. The public schools attended by the sons of the gentlemen took advantage of the football game, among other things, to stay fit in the cooler months. But each of them had its own set of rules. Not everyone mentioned an offside and sometimes the rules were the same.

Football substitution – The real story based on documents

Football substitution is an issue I am currently researching. Although the sources speak a clear language. But there have been many exceptions in football substitution, as match reports show. I know of exceptions in some countries on the European mainland between the First and Second World Wars. The four British associations also knew about this and tried to press FIFA to comply with the rules first. But in the end (1931) they unofficially let the continental European way continue. It had already become a common law there in the few years it had been in existence, and it was much appreciated. In this post I give an overview of the development of football substitution as far as I can draw/describe it at the moment.

EPTS – The Laws of the Game 2020/21

EPTS is one of the technical possibilities in football, which has been used extensively for a few years. It is a collective term for technical means that transmit performance data and body values of the individual players. Be it the kilometers run, the fitness and other data, which can be tracked.

Remind Simon Rosenberger

Simon Rosenberger was a German referee and football pioneer and supporter with heart and soul, who was committed to the idea that the game of football and the rules should be interpreted in the same way throughout Germany at that time. He worked for the magazine Kicker with Walther Bensemann and the DFB, the German national association. The interpretation of the rules was a big problem in the 1920s, because not only the version of the Laws of the Game published by the DFB deviated from the international rules. No, the interpretation of the DFB rules also varied from regional association to regional association and also from referee to referee. Rosenberger encountered obstacles in his plans – not only among club officials and the press, but also within the referees. Born in Munich and a Jewish believer, Rosenberger worked in the first half of the 1920s in Stuttgart as a sport journalist for Kicker in Konstanz and Stuttgart, and in the second half as the founder and publisher of the DFB refereeing newspaper in Cologne. …

Laws of the Game: Evolution of the wording

The Laws of the Game are the name of the football rules. The rules of the association football. Since 1858 the rules of Sheffield FC exist, since 1863 the FA Rules. In the beginning the laws contained only a few sentences, in the meantime there are several pages with several illustrations for clarification.

Why laws can not always be fair

Just some thoughts. Law ≠ Justice. A law is standardised and therefore objective, justice is a moral value and therefore subjective. Interpretations should make law more fair. – Keyword “spirit of the game”. – But they also make the rules “subjective”. Keyword “grey area”. Meaning that for a person this is fair, or at least the fairest possibility within the limitations of the rules – and with regard to the game. For another person it’s not fair. So it can not only differ from referee to referee.

Thoughts about the handball

The pure facts about the handball can be found here. (First comes the unfair game, then the handball). The question of what and why in handball is actually very philosophical. I have still not managed to write it down comprehensively, but also concisely and understandably. Even if I only outline it now, it will be long. Sorry for that. First: Discussions about the handball are not new, there are more and less of them. The focus also changes again and again. It’s the same with the offside, by the way. On the one hand, the offside and handball have hardly been changed significantly. The small changes and clarifications reflect a kind of zeitgeist. Said focus of the discussions. In the very beginning (1860s), there was the question of running with the ball. Football was more and more divided into (association) football and rugby. This took a few years, because although running was banned in the FA Rules in 1863, the Fair Catch remained permitted until 1871. In the 1930s, a completely new term came up …

Football statistics 1932

Here is a wonderful Dutch data statistic from 1932, which Jurryt van de Vooren has published in his blog Finally, in 1932 a remarkable visualization was made of DHC against GSV, part of which here. Soccer statistics seem to have started in the 1930s, even if only occasionally. By the way, Central Europe won 3-1, despite a goal by Bakhuys. But you could already have seen that in the statistics of that day. he writes in this article (in Dutch) and gives further examples.

Fellowes’ The English Game – how true is the story?

The new mini-series by Julian Fellowes, The English Game, is available on Netflix since 20 March 2020. As already announced in the trailer, the story is based on true facts. But how much? . CN: Spoiler & Demytification (yes, the word demytification actually exists) . . . Football matches in English Game The game was in the FA Cup this season and the first game ended in a draw, the last one was won by the Old Etonians. However, a second draw was left out. This game was scheduled to be played three times. Based on the narrative, one could assume that Blackburn FC won the FA Cup in the 1879/80 season against the Old Etonians. However, no year is shown before the start of the match. For here Fellowes mixed a lot for the series final: In the 1870/80 season, Clapham Rovers won the FA Cup in the final against Oxford University, the Old Etonians lost to the eventual winner in the 5th round and Blackburn Rovers won against Darwen FC in the 2nd …

Two referees in football instead of VAR?

Why don’t we have two referees on the football pitch instead of VAR? This sounds like a plausible idea that is worth thinking about. But it’s not a new idea. Not new at all Since the 19th century there have been repeated discussions and attempts to run the game with two referees on the field. Reasons were on the one hand to make the stoppage time for decisions shorter and on the other hand to have a “back-up” to penalise fouls, which neither the referee nor his*her assistant referees noticed during other games.

In dubio pro reo principle in football?

In fact, the in dubio pro reo principle that the attacking player is proved right in case of doubt, i.e. the game is not interrupted, has never existed in football. This is not about the principle of presumption of innocence. Sometimes this principle is confused with the existing advantage rule. However, this rule is used when a team has a disadvantage (for example a foul play), but remains in possession of the ball.

The back-pass rule and the art of lobbing

The introduction of the back-pass rule in the early 1990s As early as 1981, at the Annual General Meeting of The IFAB, the issue of the back-pass and wasting time was discussed. In this year, the committee was of the opinion that it was not a waste of time, as the opposing players had the right to intervene. This opinion changed significantly during and after the 1990 World Cup. In 1991, The IFAB allowed FIFA to prohibit the back-pass as an experiment at the 1991 U17 Men’s World Cup. The experiment was successful and since the 1992/93 season, the deliberately back-pass is prohibited.

The laws of the game of the Association of ball games in Berlin of 1900

A decade after the laws of the game of the Association of German Football Players of 1890/1892 the Association of ball games in Berlin published its football laws, which obtained for the complete association. They are much more comprehensive than the rules of the Association of German Football Players and clearly resemble the DFB rules of 1903 and thus the Laws of the Game. Exceptions are the tossing of a drop ball and the annotation that a penalty kick can only be given if the opposing team claims it. The laws 1 [The field] The maximum length and width of the field shall be 180 metres and 90 metres respectively (the minimum shall be 90 metres by 45 metres) and the four corners of the field shall be marked by flags (corner flags). The goals each consist of two vertical posts, 2.40 metres high, which are separated by two 7¼ metres and which are connected by a crossbar or by a tight string. These goals are located in the middle of the short ends. A …

Video replay – back and forth

Video replay does not only exist since the introduction of VAR in football. The discussions about the use of technical aids in controversial or unnoticed scenes are already old – soon be 100 years. A short journey through time on the development of video replay in football The history of video replay is also a history of the use of photographic, video and television technology and especially the slow motion.

Das Fußballregeln Laws of the Game Wordle 2016

The Laws of the Game 2019/20 and their historical development

Which are the changes of the Laws of the Game for the season 2019/20? Are they changed before?Nachspielzeiten will check it for you. This is the English version of Die Fußballregeln 2019/2020 und die historische Entwicklung. The IFAB announced the law amendments of the Laws of the Game for the season 2019/20. They will became valid on June 1st, 2019, but the final of the Men’s Champions League on this day will still be played according to the LotG of the 2018/19 season, as the game still counts for this season. But the Women’s World Championship, starting on 7th June 2019, will then be played according to the new laws. As expected, all law amendments were adopted. In the run-up most of them became already public, so that I could already deal with them (see article Possible IFAB law amendments 2019 from a historical perspective). On 14th March 2019, the IFAB published all amendments as a summary and in detail. Ensuing, I present the law amendments and, if possible, add the historical development. Not included …

The Schutzhand made in Germany

The Schutzhand in German, beschermen in Dutch. Not everywhere in world exist the myth about the reflex of holding your hands in front of your face to protect yourself when something suddenly comes at you. However, this reaction is inconvenient when playing football, because you risk an intentional or deliberate handball. It is better to turn your face away or duck. I tell you more about the myth from the German perspective and would be glad if you let me know if this myth in your country exists and what name is has. Yet the myth about the Schutzhand has been around for about 100 years. Exactly where this myth first arose is no longer discernible.

Possible IFAB law amendments 2019 from a historical perspective

On 2nd March 2019, the IFAB will discuss on the law amendments for the season 2019/20. The agenda only briefly reflects the laws for which changes in the law have been proposed. Chaled Nahar described the exact rules for the ARD Sportschau website (in German). And I would like to offer a historical view of the possible changes. The IFAB The IFAB met for the first time on 2nd June 1886 and consisted of the national football associations of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (since 1921 Northern Ireland). In 1914, the FIFA, which had been founded ten years earlier, was added and initially had two votes (which meant that it could be overruled by the four British associations). In the meantime, the four UK members have four votes and also the FIFA has four votes, with FIFA having to vote unanimously.   Law 8 – The Start and Restart of Play: Dropped ball According to this year’s proposal, nothing should change in its execution or in the reason for its use. The change is that …

Rules around 1870 – Football, Rugby and Miscellaneous

In Charles William Alcock’s short piece of writing The Book of Rules of the Game of Football, here online in a 1871 edition from New York, the well-known footballer of the first decades of the FA republished seven contemporary rules. For most of them it isn’t mentioned when the rules were lastly changed, but for some of them I could  trace it back. They are: FA Rules, 1870 Sheffield FA Rules, 1869 Eton Field Game, 1862 Winchester College, before 1871 Rugby School, between 1863 and 1870 Harrow School, before 1871 Cheltenham College, before 1871. In contrast to the comparisons published rules of the late 1840s, late 1850s, early 1860s (all only in German) and their comparison and my thoughts on it, in this post also rules with allowed handling and hacking are considered, viz. the rules of rugby (at the Rugby School in the 1860s) and mixed variants (Winchester College and Cheltenham College, partly also Eton Field Game). In this post I want to illustrate the diversity of the possibility football matches of the 1860s. …

Football Rules without handling 1847-1863

After the piecemeal comparison of some different sets of rules for football without or with little allowed handling, all of them will are compared in this blogpost. The individual comparisons (all in German): Rules, end of 1840s Rules, end of 1850s Rules, begin of 1860s   The field of the play The measures of the field of the play were only mentioned in the 1860s. Since they are quite similar here, it can be assumed that they have already been aligned and that unwritten agreements were therefore also in place. Goal measures Only in Eton there was a height limit which was already 7 ft in 1847 and did not change afterwards. All other rules did not mention any height limitation within this period. The width of the goal varied, if it was specified at all. In Eton it remained constant at 11 ft, in Harrow (1858) goals were 4 yd wide, in Cambridge (1863) 5 yd, at the FA (1863) even 8 yd. It seems that goals used to be much narrower than today. …