Die Spielregeln, Eckraum, Mittelkreis, Mittellinie, Spielfeld & Drumherum, Strafraum, Strafstoßmarkierung, Tore, Torraum
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Law 1: The Field of Play

In this article the development of the field of play is described. This includes the measures of the field with its marking lines, the goal dimensions, the measures of the centre line and centre mark, the corner arcs, the goal area, the penalty area and the technical area.

Field dimensions

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
1858 (Harrow Football) length: 150 yd, width: 100 yd („in House matches“)
1863 (Cambridge University) l: 150 yd, w: 100 yd.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) l: 150 yd, w: 120 yd.
1863 (FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd.
1867 (Sheffield FA) l: 200 yd, w: 100 yd.
1875 (FA) l: 100-200 yd, w: 50-100 yd (Royal Engineers).
1897 (IFAB) l: 100-130 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International matches: l: 110-120 yd, w: 70-80 yd.
1997 (IFAB) The field must be rectangular and the touch line is the longer side. Additional information in the metric system. Determination of the height and shape of the flag posts.
2008 (IFAB) Addition where flag posts must be placed. International matches: l: 100-120 yd, w: 50-100 yd. International A matches: l: 115 yd, w: 75 yd.

 

Field surface

 

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club/association, if known)
2004 (IFAB) It is no longer necessary to play on grass, artificial surfaces are now also permitted if they meet the requirements (FIFA).
2008 (IFAB) The colour of artificial surfaces must be green. The requirements for artificial surfaces are defined in FIFA Quality Concept for Artificial Turf or the International Artificial Turf Standard.
2011 (IFAB) Other lines on artificial surface are allowed if they differ clearly from the lines of the field of play (FIFA).
2016 (IFAB It is added that hybrid systems of natural and artificial surfaces are also allowed if competition rules allow it.

 

Field markings (with goal area, penalty area, penalty mark/line, flag posts, corner arc, halfway line)

The markings vary between 1891 and 1902, sometimes clearly from each other and do not comply with international laws. This chronology is based exclusively on international laws, the Laws of the Game.

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1857 (Cambridge University) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1858 (Sheffield FA) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1862 (Uppingham School) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1863 (FA) Four flags mark the corner of the field.
1883 (IFAB) Additional continuous lines of the goals and touch line. In practice it was mostly a solution of chalk mud or a V-shaped furrow.
1891 (IFAB) Goal area: A line six yd from the goal-posts.

Halfway line & midpoint: The centre of the field of play is marked by a point. A circle of 10 yd is drawn around the point, making the distance apparent at kick-off.

1896 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The four flags at the corners of the field of play are now mandatory, as is their minimum height (FA).
1897 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: Touch lines should be rectangular to the goal lines.
Goal area: Instead of a line, the goal areas are semicircles of 6 yd from each goal post.
1901 (IFAB) Penalty line: A line 12 yd parallel to the goal-line.
Penalty area: The penalty area is clarified only by a point 18 yd from the goal-line.
1902 (IFAB) Goal area: Instead of semi-circles, the goal area is defined as a rectangle of 6 yd side length centered in front of each goal (FA).
Penalty mark: A mark 12 yd in front of the centre of each goal (FA).
Penalty area: Instead of a mark, the penalty area is now marked by a rectangle of 18 yd in the middle of each goal (FA).
Halfway line & midpoint: In addition, a line from touch line to touch line divides the field into two equally sized halves (FA).
1938 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines must be distinctive, no V shaped rut.
Penalty mark: Additionally, a semicircle of 10 yd around the penalty mark extending out of the penalty area.
Corner area: Within each corner of the field is drawn a quarter circle of 1 yd radius.
1939 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines must not be wider than 5 inches.(FA).
1997 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: The lines are part of the areas of which they are boundaries.
markings: Supplement of metric dimensions.
2016 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: It is added that the lines must be continuous and not dangerous. Also artificial playing surface material may be used for the field markings on natural field if it is not dangerous. Furthermore, only the lines indicated in law 1 are to be marked on the field of play..
2019 (IFAB) Goal line & touch line: It is added that on artificial surfaces other lines are permitted provided they are a different colour and clearly distinguishable from the football lines..

 

Goals and GLT

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1847 and following (Eton Field Game) width: 11 ft, height marked by length of posts (= 7 ft).
1858 (Harrow Football) w: 12 ft, no height limitation.
1862 (Sheffield FC) w: 12 ft, h: 9 ft. Height marked by band.
1863 (Cambridge University) w: 15 ft, no height limitation.
1863 (FA) w: 8 yd, no height limitation.
1866 (FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band.
1868 (Sheffield FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band.
1875 (FA) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marked by band (since 1866) or crossbar (Queen’s Park).
1883 (IFAB) w: 8 yd, h: 8 ft. Height marking only by crossbar.
1894 (IFAB) Goalposts must have a diameter of 5 ins (FA).
1895 (IFAB) Goalnets must be used in international matches (FA).
1896 (IFAB) Goal nets must be attached to the goal line and the goal post equidistant from the corner flags must be located. Its the crossbar is displaced the referee decides if a goal is obtained (FA, FAW).
1938 (IFAB, German edition) Goal nets should not be attached to the goal line, but must be behind it.
1939 (IFAB) The goal-posts and crossbar both in width and depth are not greater than 5 inches. (FA).
1966 (IFAB) The goal-posts and crossbar both in width and depth are not less than 4 inches (FIFA).
1967 (IFAB) The goal-posts and the crossbar must have the same width (IFAB).
1994 (IFAB, German edition) Goalnets must be anchored securely to the ground (FA).
2008 (IFAB) Determination of the material and the form of the goal-posts.
2016 (IFAB) Introduction of the GLT in the LoG and definition of its requirements and specifications.
Where GLT is used, modifications to the goal frame may be permitted in accordance with the specifications stipulated in the FIFA Quality Programme for GLT and with the Laws of the Game. The use of GLT must be stipulated in the competition rules.
GLT applies solely to the goal line and is only used to determine whether a goal has been scored.
The indication of whether a goal has been scored must be immediate and automatically confirmed within one second by the GLT system only to the match officials (via the referee’s watch, by vibration and visual signal).
Reintroduction of the requirement for the event of displaced crossbars: The play is stopped until it has been repaired or replaced in position. If it can not be repaired the match must be abandoned. A rope or any flexible or dangerous material may not replace the crossbar. Play is restarted with a dropped ball.
2019 (IFAB) The Testing Manual will be replaced by the FIFA Quality Programme for GLT.

 

Technical Area (Coaching Area)

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1994 (IFAB) The Technical Zone will be introduced as an area up to 1 yd on the touch lines where team officials may give tactical instructions to their team (SFA).
1995 (IFAB) The Technical Zone must be marked (SFA).
1997 (IFAB) The coach may give instructions to the team, but must remain within the Technical Zone. Irrespective of this, the coach must behave in a respectful manner.
2000 (IFAB) There shall be no form of advertising in the Technical Zone, up to 1 yd on the sidelines or outside the field on the ground. Supplement: After the coach has given tactical instructions, he has to leave the Technical Area again and go to his seat.
2001 (IFAB) The regulations do not only apply to the coach, but also to all team officials.
2004 (IFAB) Technical Area must meet the requirements.
2016 (IFAB) Team officials take an active part in the game and can also risk penalty kicks if they obtain a goal.

 

Commercial advertising, logos and emblems on the field of play

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1995 (IFAB) Any kind of publicity is forbidden, also any attachment of cameras, microphones, etc. to the field of play equipment.
1997 (IFAB) Commercial advertising on the field of play is forbidden, also any attachment of cameras, microphones, etc. to the field of play equipment.
2000 (IFAB) Reproduction of logos is forbidden in the field of play and field equipment.
2016 (IFAB) It is added the advertising is not permitted on the goals, nets, flagposts or their flags. In addition, upright advertising must be at least the same distance from the goal line as the depth of the goal net and 1 m (1 yd) away from the goal net. Also, the reproduction, whether real or virtual, of representative logos or emblems of FIFA, confederation, national football associations, competitions, clubs or other bodies is forbidden on the field of play, the goal nets and the areas they enclose, the goals, and the flagposts during playing time are not permitted. All restrictions refer to the time between the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams re-enter the field of play until the end of the match.
2018 (IFAB) It is added that also 1 m (1 yd) within the RRA no advertising is allowed.
2019 (IFAB) Change: On the flags of the flagposts, logos and emblems are permitted.

 

VOR and RRA

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
2015 (IFAB) Introduction of the video operation room (VOR) and at least one referee review area (RRA).
Video Operation Room (VOR): The VOR is where the video assistant referee (VAR), assistant (AVAR) and replay operator (RO) work; it may be in/close to the stadium or at a more distant location. Only authorised persons are permitted to enter the VOR or communicate with VAR, AVAR and RO during the match. A player, substitute or substituted player who enters the VOR will be sent off; a team official who enters the VOR will be dismissed from the technical area.
Referee review area (RRA): In matches using VARs there must be at least on RRA where the referee undertakes an ‚on-field review‘ (OFR). The RRA must be in a visible location outside the field of play and clearly marked. A player, substitute or substituted player who enters the RRA will be cautioned; a team official who enters the RRA will be publicly given an official warning (or cautioned where YCs are used for the team officials).
2018 (IFAB) If team officials enter the VOR they will not be warned anymore, but sent off.
Kategorie: Die Spielregeln, Eckraum, Mittelkreis, Mittellinie, Spielfeld & Drumherum, Strafraum, Strafstoßmarkierung, Tore, Torraum

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