Autor: Petra Tabarelli

Die Abseitsregel erklĂ€rt – ein FAQ

Was kommt in den Sinn, wenn man die Abseitsregel erklĂ€rt? Es sei eine „Erfindung des Teufels“, das „berĂŒchtigte Monstrum“, das „Schmerzenskind“: Die Abseitsregel war schon vor 100 Jahren eine Fußballregel, die hĂ€ufig zu Diskussionen fĂŒhrte. Der deutsche Journalist Felix Schmal fand 1924, man könne meinen, die Regel sei nur dazu da, „Spieler zu Verzweiflung zu bringen, Zuschauer zu Skandalen aufzureizen und Schiedsrichtern zu PrĂŒgel zu verhelfen.“[1]Schmal, Felix: Die Achillesferse des Fußballs. In: Deutschen Schiedsrichter-Zeitung 10/1924 (Mai 1924), S. 45-46.. Und irgendwie möchte man ihm in gewisser Weise beipflichten. „The key law“ „Fear game isn‘t ready for change to key law“ titelte 1989 der Evening Express und trifft damit auch heute noch den Nagel auf den Kopf: Die Abseitsregel ist die SchlĂŒsselregel des Fußballspiels, der Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Regelwerkes. (Und nicht etwa Regel 12, das Handspiel und Fouls, wie auch viele Schiedsrichter*innen meinen.) Der ungenannte Autor fasste es in diesem Artikel treffen zusammen: „Offside has always been a much debated and unpopular tactic, yet from its very inception in the earliest years of the game. …

Flutlichtspiel mit Bogenlampe

Über nachfolgenden Artikel ĂŒber ein Flutlichtspiel stolperte ich vor kurzem in der Sportzeitschrift „Freie Sport-Woche. Zeitschrift fĂŒr Spiel und Sport“ aus dem Jahr 1930: Fußball bei Nacht? In England ist das erste Fußballspiel bei kĂŒnstlicher Beleuchtung vor sich gegangen; die Meinungen darĂŒber gehen in der englischen Tages- und Sportpresse auseinander. Das sozialistische Organ, der „Daily Herald“, bemerkt dazu: „So verfĂŒhrerisch die Idee des Nachtfußballspiels ist, so zweifelhaft ist es aber, ob sie einen praktischen Wert hat. Als vorĂŒbergehende Sensation mag sie die Phantasie der Masse anregen, aber als Dauereinrichtung wird sich das nĂ€chtliche Fußballspiel wohl nicht behaupten können. Fußball ist ein Spiel fĂŒr den hellen Tag, viel von seinem Reiz wird verschwinden, wenn es im Lichte der Bogenlampen gespielt wird; es wird bei kĂŒnstlicher Beleuchtung zu einem kĂŒnstlichen Spiel werden. Dann ist Fußball auch ein Sport fĂŒr den Winter. Fußball bei Nacht mĂŒĂŸte sich aber, um finanziell ertragreich zu sein, den Sommer ĂŒber hinziehen und wĂŒrde so eine Konkurrenz fĂŒr den Sommersport bilden. Die frische Luft des Wintertages gibt dem Fußballspieler eigentlich erst das Leben und …

Comparison: Rulebooks from the beginning of the 1860s

Having now compared the rulebooks from the last years of the 1840s, and the last years of the 1850s, it is now the turn of rulebooks from the early 1860s, i.e. rulebooks that were created at the same time as the FA Rules. These are the Rules of Blackheath Football Club from 1862, the Laws of Eton Field Game from 1862, The Simplest Game (Uppingham School) from 1862, the Rules of Football as played at Shrewsbury School from 1863, the Cambridge University Rules of 1863 and the FA Rules of 1863. Again, I am only comparing rulebooks for football with little or no handball allowed. A first look – similarities and differences As in the rulebooks created about five years earlier, all have provisions on handball, illegal play and the scoring of goals, plus the kick and offside. Here is a look at the individual rules: Choosing the sides The side selection is decided by the toss of a coin at Cambridge and at the FA. There are no written stipulations for Blackheath, Eton, Shrewsbury and …

Floodlit game

I recently stumbled across the following article about a floodlit game in the sports magazine „Freie Sport-Woche. Zeitschrift fĂŒr Spiel und Sport“ from 1930: Football at night? In England the first football match has been played under artificial lighting; opinions about it differ in the English daily and sports press. The socialist organ, the Daily Herald, comments: „Seductive as the idea of night football is, however, it is doubtful whether it has any practical value. As a temporary sensation it may capture the imagination of the masses, but as a permanent fixture the night football game is unlikely to hold its own. Football is a game for broad daylight; much of its appeal will disappear when it is played in the light of arc lamps; it will become an artificial game under artificial lighting. Then football will also be a sport for the winter. Football at night, however, in order to be financially profitable, would have to be played throughout the summer and would thus compete with summer sports. The fresh air of the winter …

The very first German Sport Magazines

Football reporting emerged in Germany, as in Austria, in the 1890s. Sports journalists, along with sporting goods manufacturers and dealers, building and transport contractors, bookmakers and beverage producers, were among the groups of people who profited directly from modern sport. The first specialist journalists were mostly active footballers who tried to open up the market for this new kind of diversion in this way. The very first sports magazine, however, appeared as early as October 1792. „The Sporting Magazine, or Monthly Calendar of the Transactions of the Turf, the Chase and every other Diversion interesting to the Man of Pleasure, Enterprize, and Spirit“, however, was about the then most popular sports of the upper classes: Hunting and horse racing.[1]Behringer, Wolfgang: Kulturgeschichte des Sports. From Ancient Olympia to the Present. Munich 2012. p. 236. Here I introduce the two sports magazines Sport im Bild by Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles and Spiel und Sport by John Bloch.   Sport in Picture Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles (1871-1956) was one of the first sports journalists in late 19th century Germany and, significantly, English. …

Old German Football Songs

What do football fan chants and pilgrimage songs have in common? They are sung to melodies that are already familiar, because that way only the new lyrics have to be learned and not the melody as well. This is true not only of today’s songs sung to the theme tune of the A-Team, Pippi Longstocking or „Seven Nation Army“ by the White Stripes, but also as far back as the turn of the 20th century, when „assocation football“ became known as „football without picking up the ball“. I found 90 German football fan songs in the volksliederarchiv.de, all from the three football song collections „Fussball Sang und Klang“, „Fussball-Liederbuch“ and „Sport-Liederbuch“, which were published in several editions until 1933. I had wordles created from the song texts. Before I get to the Wordles, a few introductory words. (I won’t prevent you from scrolling down once, if you are too curious). I am aware that this is not an extremely representative evaluation. 90 songs are probably only a small of the songs circulating between 1895 and …

Visions of 1925: Football in the Year 2000

Football in the year 2000 is now a thing of the past. In 1925 it was still a vision of the future and therefore the article „What to expect in the year 2000“, which appeared in the Mansfield Reporter on 1 May 1925, sounds exciting. So what was the vision of the future? How did one imagine the game of football to be played at the following turn of the millennium? But at first glance one is disappointed. This is already revealed by the beginning of the title: „Football Special. Exclusive Interview with a Martian„. But between the lines, much can be read about the ideas and desires of the author, sports journalist L. V. Manning. What is it about? The article is written in prose and is rather reminiscent of Kafka in its beginning: „How he got into the room I cannot explain. I only know that he was there, helping himself to my tobacco and enjoying my whisky and soda like a mere mortal. ‚It’ll make a great story,‘ he said, ‚but I …

The development of the Sheffield Rules

I came across this page this month, which lists several Sheffield Rules. More than just the four I have used so far. So I have now been able to update the various rules and the concise history of the Sheffield FA Rules. Here it is now to give a little more detail of the Sheffield rules, but of course not as much detail as various books cover, looking at Sheffield FC in its early days. It is the elaboration of my comparison. My first mistake that caught my eye in the analysis was that the Sheffield FA was not founded at the same time as Sheffield FC, but in 1867, nine years later. That is, after the Football Association was founded. The latter consisted mainly of London football clubs, but not only London clubs were involved in the founding, but a representative of Sheffield FC, for example, was also present. So for the time being, it’s about the … Sheffield FC Rules (1858-1867) The drafts and first published version 1858 The first draft Sheffield FC …

FIFA becomes a member of the IFAB

FIFA did not always belong to the IFAB, after all it is a few years younger. Surprised? Don’t be. Aberystwyth is a Welsh port town and its football club, Aberystwyth Town, was founded in 1884. That makes it two years older than the IFAB, the International Football Association Board. FIFA – FĂ©dĂ©ration Internationale de Football Association – was not founded until 1904 and the name also shows that it was not founded in the United Kingdom. It was founded in Paris. Why was the IFAB founded? What is the IFAB? Yes, the International Football Association Board. But why was it founded? And by whom? I explained that four years ago here, but again in very short and understandable terms: It is an association of the four British associations: the Scottish SFA, the Welsh FAW, the Irish IFA and the British FA. And this association became necessary because the football rules of the four countries differed and thus made international matches a bit more complex: Which rules do you play by? Those of the home teams? …

Modern football around 1900

Modern football … „[…] it is evident that football is quite an ancient game. Time alters everything, and it has undoubtedly done so in football. Where one used to play with half the village on one side and the same on the other, it is now restricted to sides composed of eleven players. As I have been requested to write on the modern game it is not worth while dwelling upon how it was played a hundred years ago. Football is really supposed to be a Scottish game, but it was in England that a proper Association with defined rules was first started.“ (John Cameron: Association Football and How to play it. London [1908]. P. 7.) The concept of modern football is not one of recent decades, as I pointed out last year in two longreads at 120minutes about England and Germany. 1870s: combination football Both Montague Shearman (1887), Charles William Alcock (1906) and quoted John Cameron (1908) describe in their writings on the game of football what has already changed since the first football …

Moderner Fußball um 1900

Moderner Fußball … „[…] it is evident that football is quite an ancient game. Time alters everything, and it has undoubtedly done so in football. Where one used to play with half the village on one side and the same on the other, it is now restricted to sides composed of eleven players. As I have been requested to write on the modern game it is not worth while dwelling upon how it was played a hundred years ago. Football is really supposed to be a Scottish game, but it was in England that a proper Association with defined rules was first started.“ (John Cameron: Association Football and How to play it. London [1908]. S. 7.) Der Begriff des modernen Fußballs ist kein Begriff der letzten Jahrzehnte, wie ich im vergangenen Jahr in zwei Longreads bei 120minuten ĂŒber England und Deutschland. 1870er Jahre: Kombinationsfußball Sowohl Montague Shearman (1887), Charles William Alcock (1906) und zitierter John Cameron (1908) beschreiben in ihren Schriften ĂŒber das Fußballspiel, was sich seit der GrĂŒndung des ersten Fußballverbandes 1863 bereits verĂ€ndert …

The Morley Doodle and False Reports

On 16 August 2018, Google published a Doodle in honour of Ebenezer Cobb Morley’s 187th birthday in Cuba, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, China, Vietnam, India, Greece, France, Croatia, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany and the UK. Google’s description of the doodle alone is teeming with errors or at least contentious statements, which I would like to name in this post. And I would like to encourage you not to take everything at face value. The fact that I am dealing with the development of football rules and regulations at all is due to a lack of source-based work. In my search for year numbers, I noticed that year numbers contradicted each other and that only in the rarest of cases is reference made to the contemporary source (e.g. newspaper reports). The assumption that many simply obtain information from two or three sites and do not check them further is confirmed again and again. This is also the case with this doodle. == Subsequent note: I did not check the links after creating the …

Das Morley-Doodle und falsche Berichte

Am 16. August 2018 veröffentlichte Google ein Doodle zu Ehren des 187. Geburtstags von Ebenezer Cobb Morley in Kuba, Peru, Kolumbien, Brasilien, Argentinien, Neuseeland, Australien, China, Vietnam, Indien, Griechenland, Frankreich, Kroatien, Polen, Litauen, Estland, Deutschland und im Vereinigten Königreich. Allein in Googles Beschreibung des Doodles wimmelt es von Fehlern oder zumindest streitbaren Äußerungen, die ich in diesem Beitrag benennen möchte. Und euch dazu animieren möchte, nicht alles fĂŒr bare MĂŒnze zu nehmen. Dass ich mich ĂŒberhaupt mit der Entwicklung der Fußballregeln und -regelwerke beschĂ€ftige, hat mangelndes quellenbasiertes Arbeiten als Ursache. Auf der Suche nach Jahreszahlen merkte ich, dass sich Jahreszahlen widersprachen und das nur in allerseltensten FĂ€llen auf die zeitgenössische Quelle (z.B. Zeitungsberichte) verwiesen wird. Die Annahme, dass viele einfach Informationen von zwei, drei Seiten beziehen und diese nicht weiter ĂŒberprĂŒfen, bestĂ€tigt sich immer wieder. So auch bei diesem Doodle. == NachtrĂ€glich Anmerkung: Ich habe nach Erstellen des Posts die Links nicht mehr ĂŒberprĂŒft. Gut möglich, dass manche Berichte nachtrĂ€glich berichtet wurden. == Dass SWP die ersten FA-Treffen auf 1982 datiert und India Today Morley Geburtsjahr auf …

German Football History – Born in Lueneburg

German football history is always started with Konrad Koch in Braunschweig. Yet this is merely a myth. A myth that has spread all too easily. Not least through a cinema film about Konrad Koch with Daniel Bruehl or through a documentary by the TV station NDR that will not be broadcast until summer 2020. The beginnings of the sport of football in Germany lie in LĂŒneburg. The Beginning of German Football History Football historian Hans-Peter Hock came across an article in the English weekly The Field, the farm, the garden. The country gentleman’s newspaper of 04.09.1875. This reported that at the end of August a football match under FA Rules had taken place at the Johanneum school in LĂŒneburg. At a time when rugby-like rules were still being played in Braunschweig or even Dresden. (Because Konrad Koch introduced rugby to Brunswick, not football. It used to be called only both football). This football club at the school of Lueneburg was founded in 1874 and probably only existed for a short time, although there were more …

Deutsche Fußball-Geschichte – Born in LĂŒneburg

Die deutsche Fußball-Geschichte wird immer wieder mit Konrad Koch in Braunschweig begonnen. Dabei ist dies lediglich ein Mythos. Ein Mythos, der sich allzu leicht verbreitete hatte. Nicht zuletzt durch einen Kinofilm ĂŒber Konrad Koch mit Daniel BrĂŒhl oder ĂŒber eine erst im Sommer 2020 ausgestrahlte Dokumentation des TV-Senders NDR. Die AnfĂ€nge des Fußball Sports in Deutschland liegen in LĂŒneburg. Der Beginn der deutschen Fußball-Geschichte Der Fußballhistoriker Hans-Peter Hock stieß bei Recherchen auf einen Artikel der englischen Wochenzeitschrift The Field, the farm, the garden. The country gentleman’s newspaper vom 04.09.1875. Diese berichtete, dass Ende August ein Fußballspiel nach FA Rules an der Schule Johanneum in LĂŒneburg stattgefunden hat. Zu einer Zeit, als in Braunschweig oder auch Dresden noch nach Rugby-Ă€hnlichen Regeln gespielt wurde. (Denn Konrad Koch fĂŒhrte Rugby in Braunschweig ein, nicht Fußball. Es hieß frĂŒher nur beides football.) Dieser Fußballclub an der Schule von LĂŒneburg wurde 1874 gegrĂŒndet und bestand vermutlich nur kurze Zeit, wenngleich es im Jahr 1875 noch weitere Spiele gab. Davon bezeugt nicht nur The Field, sondern auch der Lokal-Zeitung von LĂŒneburg. …

Another variation of the penalty shootout

(This article is a replay of a longer Twitter thread in German). This short clip shows … yes, what? Training scenes? Not at all. It’s about determining a winner after a draw. Small thread on this and other decision variations. I like touchdown/rouge the best. How MLS penalties were taken in the 90s…. pic.twitter.com/Pnzuf0E3eI – 90s Football (@90sfootball) September 22, 2021 35-yard shootout in 5 seconds „On 27/06/1970, 25 men met […] [in] Inverness. The decision they made that day terrified millions […] of people.“ So attention-grabbing began a thread about the introduction of the penalty shootout in 1970. And the type of game in the clip is also a penalty shootout (KFPM). This variant was introduced in the North American Soccer League in 1977 and continued until its end in 1982. The newly founded Major League Soccer (MLS) adopted the variant until 1999. And how did it work? A player stood 35 yards (32 metres) in front of the opponent’s goal and had to get the ball into the goal within five seconds. Another …

How the penalty kick came into the rules

Penalty kicks are loved and hated. The idea of bringing a challenge, a duel, onto the pitch came from a Northern Irishman in 1890. William McCrum was a lousy goalkeeper. He rarely stopped shots coming at the goal of his club, Northern Ireland’s Milford FC. He also stuck more to gambling than to the family business (linen manufacturing). Although he was also a lousy gambler. Penalty: Man against man But he is also considered the inventor for the penalty kick. The penalty kick, its proper, rules-based name, supposedly occurred to him in 1890. The Milford goalkeeper was sorry to see a clear goal-scoring opportunity taken away by a foul (the emergency stop, DOGSO in international rules parlance). And so McCrum came up with the idea of a challenge, as in a duel: man against man, with the one fouled getting an advantage. The 2nd of June 1890 in London He passed his idea on to the local association (Mid Ulster Football Association) and they in turn to the IFA (Irish Football Association). And the latter …

History: Football in TV

Just as football and the medium of radio inspired each other, the same happened with football on television. Sir Stanley Rous, later FIFA President, then realised that football had to be shown on television if it was to retain its popularity. What was against it? Well, there were many voices that fans would no longer come to the stadium because of TV broadcasts. Or that games would be misreported because journalists would no longer report from the stadium either. The fear of the unknown. In the 1930s, there were only a few broadcasts at first, not only in Germany or England, and the commentators initially spoke in a very stilted and formal manner and could hardly recognise the players on the field. But things improved over time. For Stanley Rous, then FA Secretary asked two BBC commentators to invite FA President Pickford in 1937. Pickford was an older man who knew football from the early days of the FA. He accepted the invitation that promptly followed and what after his first appointment as co-commentator was …

Netflix: The English Game – The football rules in force 1879 to 1883

This article gives an overview of the FA’s football rules between 1879 and 1883. Some things, such as the number of players or, until 1883, the ball, were not regulated in the Laws of the Game, yet there were standards. However, in the 1860s and 1870s, the game was still developing into the game we often know. Mixed variants with rugby were possible. The style of play is also more reminiscent of rugby, especially that of the gentlemen.   Field size 1879: The pitch was about 91-183 metres (100-200 yd) long and about 46-91 metres (50-100 yd) wide. Goal dimensions 1879: The gate was about 8 yd (7.32 m) wide and about 8 ft (2.44 m) high (as today). The height was marked by a ribbon or batten. 1883: The height could only be marked with a batten, no longer with a ribbon. Playing field markings 1879: There were the four corner flags. 1883: The side lines and goal lines were added. They were usually made of a lime solution or a V-shaped gutter (quite …

Netflix: The English Game – Die gĂŒltigen Fußballregeln 1879 bis 1883

Dieser Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht ĂŒber die Fußballregeln der FA zwischen 1879 und 1883. Manches wie die Spieleranzahl oder bis 1883 der Ball wurde nicht in den Spielregeln geregelt, dennoch gab es Normen. Allerdings entwickelte sich das Spiel in den 1860er und 1870er Jahren noch zu dem Spiel, das wir hĂ€ufig kennen. Mischvarianten mit Rugby waren möglich. Auch die Spielweise erinnert und heute eher an Rugby, gerade die der Gentlemen.   SpielfeldgrĂ¶ĂŸe 1879: Das Spielfeld war ca. 91-183 Meter (100-200 yd) lang und ca. 46-91 Meter (50-100 yd) breit. Tormaße 1879: Das Tor war ca. 7,32 m (8 yd) breit und ca. 2,44 (8 ft) hoch (wie heute). Die Höhe wurde durch ein Band oder eine Latte markiert. 1883: Die Höhe durfte nur mit einer Latte markiert werden, nicht mehr mit einem Band. Spielfeldmarkierungen 1879: Es gab die vier Eckfahnen. 1883: Es wurden die Seiten- und Torlinien ergĂ€nzt. Meist waren sie aus einer Kalklösung oder eine V-förmige Rinne (ziemlich gefĂ€hrlich fĂŒr AußenbĂ€nder). Weitere Feldmarkierungen wurden erst spĂ€ter ergĂ€nzt. Ball 1879: Es gab keine Vorgaben. 1883: …

Comparison: Rules and regulations from the end of the 1860s

Comparison: Rules and regulations from the end of the 1840s Now that I have compared the rulebooks from the last years of the 1840s, and the last years of the 1850s, it is now the turn of rulebooks from the beginning of the 1860s, i.e. rulebooks that were created at the same time as the FA Rules. These are the Rules of Blackheath Football Club from 1862, the Laws of Eton Field Game from 1862, The Simplest Game (Uppingham School) from 1862, the Rules of Football as played at Shrewsbury School from 1863, the Cambridge University Rules of 1863 and the FA Rules of 1863. Again, I am only comparing rulebooks for football with little or no handball allowed. A first look – similarities and differences . As in the rulebooks created about five years earlier, all have provisions on handball, illegal play and the scoring of goals, plus the kick and offside. Here is a look at the individual rules: Side selection . The side selection is decided by the toss of a coin at …

Comparison: Rules and regulations from the end of the 1850s

Last time I compared rulebooks from the last years of the 1840s, now it’s three rulebooks for football with little or no handball allowed, published about ten years later. Namely, the Laws of Eton Field Game from 1857, the Rules of Harrow Football from 1858 and the Sheffield FC Rules from 1858. A first look – similarities and differences . In all the rulebooks there are details of the following rules: Handball, Illegal Play Throw-In/Foot-In, Kick-Off and Corner Kick, and Goal Scoring. So a greater amount of overlap as between the Eton Field Game Rules of 1847 and the Surrey Rules of 1849. Since the rulebooks compared here do not differ that significantly, which is why I am comparing the content of each rule here. Page selection . By coin toss in Harrow. No details for Eton and Sheffield. At Harrow it was added that there was no coin toss in school games, otherwise the headmaster’s team chose the sides. Goal measurements . No specification in Sheffield and the specification in the other three towns …

Comparison: Rules and regulations from the end of the 1840s

Wikimedia has two mid-19th century football rulebooks online, namely the Laws of Eton Field Game from 1847 and the Rules of Surrey Football Club from 1849. I confine myself to sets of rules for football with little or no handball allowed. A first look – similarities and differences The length of the two sets of rules alone differs considerably, the six Surrey rules being contrasted with over twenty from Eton College. And as significantly as the length differs, so does the content, for only one rule is found in both rulebooks: How to score a goal. And, somehow unsurprisingly, this too differs between the two sets of rules. At Eton College, it was scored in the classical way: Between the goalposts and below a certain height, which was imaginary visible by the height of the posts. In Surrey, on the other hand, the ball must be kicked over the goal rope. Goal measurements are missing from the Surrey rules. Rules of Surrey Football Club of 1849 So the Surrey rulebook was very scarce in 1849. …

Concussions: How did the game of headers come into being?

The game of headers only became established in England in the 1870s. Whether this was due to the prohibition of the fair catch in association football/soccer is not proven. But it would fit in chronologically. Correlation? Causality? So far there is no evidence. The Fair Catch What is the fair catch? Some of you know it from other football games like American football. That’s why it was part of football rules until 1871, because the game has a common origin: football. At the public school in Rugby, the running game was popular (with carrying the ball). Eton College deliberately played (almost) without handball, i.e. an unconscious, unintentional handball was not forbidden and neither was catching a ball directly out of the air – the fair catch. You guessed it, the schools of Rugby and Eton were at loggerheads 200 years ago. In the course of the separation of the football games, the Fair Catch was banned – in all major English regional associations at the same time. Header play is establishing itself Match reports show …

Die Quintessenz des Spieles

Am 19. Februar 1899 machte die Wiener Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung bekannt[1]Vgl. NN: Die Oxforder Mannschaft in Wien. In: Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung [Wien], 19.02.1899. S. 192. Letzter Zugriff: 04.03.2018., dass der Oxford University Association Football Club zu Spielen in Prag und Wien ĂŒber die Ostertage nach Österreich reiste. Einem damals sehr erfolgreichen Club der Football Association, der als UniversitĂ€tsverein nun in der Liga der Fußballmannschaften von britischen UniversitĂ€ten und Colleges der Midlands-Region (um Birmingham), spielt. Die Spiele gegen den Deutschen Fußballclub und Slavia (beide Prag) fanden Ende MĂ€rz statt, die Spiele in Wien Anfang April. Der Artikel stellt außerdem die Mannschaft des Oxford University AFC mit vorherig besuchtem College, GrĂ¶ĂŸe, Gewicht, Position und weiteren Sportarten, die sie betrieben, vor. Die Spiele fanden in Wien gegen den Wiener Athletiksport-Club statt und zwar gegen eine Mannschaft mit Österreichern und EnglĂ€ndern („gemischte Mannschaft“) und eine Mannschaft mit nur Österreichern („deutsche Mannschaft“). Die „deutsche Mannschaft“ bestand dabei aus drei Spielern der „gemischten“ Startelf ,drei genannten Ersatzspielern und fĂŒnf weiteren, die fĂŒr das Spiel der „gemischten Mannschaft“ nicht berĂŒcksichtigt wurden. Um 15:30 Uhr …

The most desirable code oder The manly game of football? Discussions about the first FA Rules

Before the Football Association rulebook was adopted on 8 December 1863, there were five meetings to establish the bylaws and rulebook for this association of football clubs; a rulebook that was to be binding on all members. The meetings Six meetings were held between 26 October and 8 December 1863, all at the Freemasons‘ Tavern in London, namely on 26 Oct, 10 Nov, 17 Nov, 24 Nov, 1 Dec and finally on 8 Dec. Arthur Pember, who later became FA Chairman, was in charge. At the first meeting, 14 clubs were represented, at the last meeting eight clubs, as seven clubs left the association early and another joined later. A total of 44 club representatives attended the meetings, but only six remained involved in the FA as of 1864 [1]http://www.scottishsporthistory.com/uploads/3/3/6/0/3360867/meeting_attendees.pdf. On 24 November 1863 there was the fourth meeting and the formation of the FA might well have been possible on that day had it not been for discussions about running and hacking, i.e. running with the ball in hand and kicking purposefully against an …

Frauenfußball in Deutschland ist 100 Jahre alt

Vom Gentlemen- zum Arbeitersport: England und der moderne Fußball

„Moderner Fußball“ ist ein Schlagwort. Ein Schlagwort, das in Zeiten von wankendem 50+1, zunehmender Kommerzialisierung, zerstĂŒckelter Spieltage etc. vorwiegend negativ konnotiert ist. Aber war der Fußball vorher alt? Antik? NatĂŒrlich mitnichten. tymologisch betrachtet, bedeutet modern nichts anderes als „modisch/nach heutiger Mode“. Synonyme sind Adjektive wie aktuell, neu(artig), zeitgemĂ€ĂŸ und meinen damit auch fortschrittlich und etwas, das gerade eben („modo“) beliebt geworden ist. Ähnlich definiert es auch der Duden. So gesehen geht es bei der Frage nach modernem Fußball um die Phase, in der Fußball bei der Masse der Bevölkerung und nicht nur ein paar Nerds beliebt und in der die ursprĂŒngliche Form weiterentwickelt wurde. Es soll hier nur um den Beginn des modernen Fußballs in England und Deutschland (genauer gesagt: im deutschen Kaiserreich) gehen und um die Frage, was oder wer verursachte, dass er modernisiert wurde. Der Beitrag ist ein in Fließtext gebrachtes Brainstorming, das ausdrĂŒcklich zum Kommentieren anregen soll. Allerdings geht es hier wirklich nur um die AnfĂ€nge des Fußballs, d.h. um etwa die Phase 1820-1900 in England und 1870-1930 in Deutschland. Dieser erste von zwei …

Kick-In instead of throw-in?

A while ago @dbFCZ, who looks after the FC Zurich database, wrote to me. Including a photographed match report excerpt in which the kick-in is discussed. (The kick-in is the equivalent of the throw-in, the thrown-in). As so often in the history of football rules: As curious as it sounds, it has existed before and, in this case, even once as part of the rules. The kick-in in the old football rules Before 1863, both kick-ins and throw-ins were part of different rules   From 1863-1886: Yes, No … Yes? The (London) FA Rules and Sheffield FA Rules had it all. While Sheffield FC used the throw-in, the Sheffield FA wrote the kick-in into the rules. In the (London) FA, on the other hand, the throw-in was part of the rules. Until 1877, when the Sheffield FA adopted the FA Rules in exchange for a few Sheffield rules. Thus, from 1877 to 1886, the FA allowed a choice between a throw-in or a kick-in. By 1886, the birth of the IFAB and the Laws of …

Vom Kaiserreich zur Kommerzialisierung: Deutschland und der moderne Fußball

„Moderner Fußball“ ist ein Schlagwort. Ein Schlagwort, das in Zeiten von wankendem 50+1, zunehmender Kommerzialisierung, zerstĂŒckelter Spieltage etc. vorwiegend negativ konnotiert ist. Aber war der Fußball vorher alt? Antik? NatĂŒrlich mitnichten. Etymologisch betrachtet, bedeutet modern nichts anderes als „modisch/nach heutiger Mode“. Synonyme sind Adjektive wie aktuell, neu(artig), zeitgemĂ€ĂŸ und meinen damit auch fortschrittlich und etwas, das gerade eben („modo“) beliebt geworden ist. Ähnlich definiert es auch der Duden. So gesehen geht es bei der Frage nach modernem Fußball um die Phase, in der Fußball bei der Masse der Bevölkerung und nicht nur ein paar Nerds beliebt und in der die ursprĂŒngliche Form weiterentwickelt wurde. Es soll hier nur um den Beginn des modernen Fußballs in England und Deutschland (genauer gesagt: im deutschen Kaiserreich) gehen und um die Frage, was oder wer verursachte, dass er modernisiert wurde. Der Beitrag ist ein in Fließtext gebrachtes Brainstorming, das ausdrĂŒcklich zum Kommentieren anregen soll. Allerdings geht es hier wirklich nur um die AnfĂ€nge des Fußballs, d.h. um etwa die Phase 1820-1900 in England und 1870-1930 in Deutschland. Dieser erste von zwei …

Comparison: Rules and regulations from 1847-1863

After comparing different sets of rules for football without or with little permitted handball, it is useful to go through the development of the individual rules. Playing field measurements Playing field measurements are not mentioned at all until the 1860s. Since they are quite similar here, it can be assumed that they had already converged before then and therefore unwritten agreements were also in place. Goal dimensions Only Eton had a height limit, which was 2.13 m as early as 1847 and did not change thereafter. All other rulebooks knew no height limit within this time period. The width of the gate varied, if it was specified at all. At Eton it remained constant at 3.35 m, at Harrow (1858) goals were 3.66 m wide, at Cambridge (1863) 4.57 m, and at the FA (1863) as much as 7.32 m. It seems that gates used to be much narrower than today. Number of players The number of players is now specified in the 1849 Surrey Rule Book. Here there are already eleven players. In most …