Unlawful game

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1856 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1857 (Eton Field Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1858 (Harrow Football) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1858 (Sheffield FC) The first draft of the Sheffield FC Rules allows a player who performs a place kick (but not a goal kick) to be charged during the kick. This passage was deleted in the published Sheffield FC Rules. Holding and kicking a player was forbidden.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking, except attacking an opponent while running.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1862 (Eton Field Game) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.)
1863 (Shrewsbury School) All fouls with arms and hands. (With legs and feet allowed.)
1863 (Cambridge University) Holding, charging, tripping, intentional kicking.
1863 (FA) Charging, tripping, intentional kicking, holding, pushing.
1867 (Sheffield FA) Pushing, kicking, tripping.
1869 (FA) Attacking of a player from behind (Upton Park FC)
1871 (Sheffield FA) Attacking of a player from behind.
1874 (FA) In case of an infringement of the law, the opponent awarded an indirect free kick from the point of the foul (Harrow Chequers).
1877 (FA) Players may be sent off because of their illegal play and may not be replaced.
1878 (FA) Whoever stands with his back to the opponent and hinder him/her can be charged (Reading FC).
1880 (FA) Jumping on opponents (Darwen Club).
1892 (IFAB) Any conduct and play that could cause an injury.
1909 (DFB) Dismissal for every insult like an „offensive, insulting or abusive utterance or gesture“.
1926 (IFAB) When a player using foul or abusive language to the referee he/she shall be penalised of violent conduct (FAW).
1935 (IFAB) A player who does not report to the referee before re-entering the match causes a indirect free kick (FA).
1939 (IFAB) Blocking, whether intentional or unintentional, is prohibited (FA).
1948 (IFAB) Attempting to kick an opponent deliberately, charging with no intention of playing the ball, attempting to kick the ball when the goalkeeper holds the ball (dangerous play), infringing repeatedly the laws (ungentlemanly conduct), complaining about referee’s decisions by word or deed (ungentlemanly conduct) (FIFA).
approx. 1949 (IFAB) Fouls without touching the ball and handball are punished with a direct free kick) (FIFA).
between 1949 and 1958 (DFB) „provision of advantage“
1963 (IFAB) If a player dances or gestures before a free kick to confuse his/her opponent, he/she must be cautioned for ungentlemanly behaviour (FIFA).
1967 (IFAB) If a player throws a ball, a stone, a shoe or anything else at the referee, another player, spectator or team official, he/she commits an offence and must be penalised. In addition, a free kick (penalty kick, if inside the penalty area) shall be taken to continue play from the point at which the player began his action (FIFA, IFAB).
1967 (IFAB) The IFAB leaves it up to the national associations to decide whether they prohibit the goalkeeper from approaching in their own goal area basically. (Previously, it was allowed to approach the goalkeeper if he or she held the ball).
1967 (IFAB) If a player who has already been sent off enters the field… (Additional): The referee must stop play immediately. Even if this gives the guilty team an advantage (IFAB).
1968 (IFAB) Spitting is a dangerous manner against players, team officials or referees (FA, FIFA).
1969 (IFAB) If a player leaves the field without the referee’s permission, he or she must be penalised. The match is restarted by an indirect free kick (previously: dropped ball). If the player commits another infringement, the more serious of the two must be penalised (FIFA).
1969 (IFAB) If a player who has already been sent off enters the field, the match is restarted with an indirect free kick from the place where the guilty player was when the referee stopped play (previously: dropped ball) (SFA).
1970 (IFAB) At the World Cup in Mexico (not as sometimes read 1968 at the Olympic Football Championship in Mexico) yellow and red cards were used for the first time. (Maybe they were tested during the Olympic Football Championship in Mexico, 1968.)
1973 (IFAB) If the referee wants to caution a player and the player commits another offence in the interruption of play before the penalty, he or she shall be sent off (SFA).
1974 (DFB) Yellow and red cards are being introduced in the Bundesliga. Newspaper reports show it has been frightening for many people how many yellow cards were given, how many fouls were committed which must be booked.
1978 (IFAB) If a free kick is given to a team in its own goal area, the free kick may be taken from any point within the goal area (FA).
1978 (IFAB) The kicking of an opponent is considered a dangerous manner and must therefore lead to a sending-off, not a caution (FIFA).
1978 (DFB) Yellow card suspension after four yellow cards in one season was introduced in the Bundesliga, when Walter Frosch got 27 yellow cards in 37 games.
1983 (DFB) For the 1983/84 season, a time penalty of ten-minute was introduced (but only in this season). 1)NN: Out and in. In: Der Spiegel 49 (1982). URL. http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-14356544.html (Last accessed: 07.07.2017). (only German).
1983 (IFAB) The cynical foul will be punished with a dismissal.
1991 (IFAB) Introducing of the second yellow card and the suspension for one match after five (ten, etc.) yellow cards in one season. These regulations did not the expected effect, but were not repealed.
1992 (IFAB) Although introduced as early as 1970, the yellow and red cards are only now mentioned in the laws to draw attention to them (FIFA).
1992 (IFAB) The goalkeeper is no longer allowed to pick up a player’s return pass with his hand, otherwise it is considered as a handball (FIFA).
1993 (IFAB) A player can pass the ball with head, chest, knee etc. to his own goalkeeper. However, if, in the opinion of the referee, a player uses an intentional tricks, he/she is guilty of ungentlemanly conduct and punished (yellow card, indirect free kick) (FIFA).
1993 (IFAB) Yellow card suspension after five yellow cards in one season (thanks to Collinas Erben!).
1995 (IFAB) All players except goalkeepers and performers must also be behind the penalty spot (SFA).
1997 (IFAB) An insult is a dangerous manner.
1998 (IFAB) The dangerous sliding tackle from behind is punished with a dismissal (dangerous manner) (FIFA).
1999 (IFAB) An attempt at deception must be cautioned (FIFA).
2000 (IFAB) The goal keeper is allowed to take as many steps as he or she wants, but he or she may only hold the ball for six seconds (FIFA).
2001 (IFAB) Not only players and substitutes, but also substituted players may be cautioned or sent off (IFA).
2001 (IFAB) A player who has been sent off may not be in the vicinity of the field and must also leave the technical zone (FIFA).
2002 (IFAB) An injured player who has been treated may not return to the field until the match has been restarted (FIFA).
2015 (IFAB) No more „triple penalty“: The automatic suspension following a foul denying an obvious goal-scoring opportunity in the penalty area (FIFA).
2016 (IFAB) Fouls outside of the field can now be penalised – with free kick or penalty kick, depending on the place of the foul. A penalty kick is taken if a team official prevents a goal (previous: dropped ball).

 

Proposals for law amendments that were not accepted:

year club/association proposal reaction
1934 FA A player who was standing off the field should not only report to the referee, but should also only enter the field at middle line. withdrawn
1934 FA If a player does not report to the referee before re-entering the field, the game is restarted by a free kick. withdrawn
1966 FIFA The goalkeeper is allowed to take four more steps with the ball if he or she bounced the ball on the floor. withdrawn
1967, 1968 SFA Blocking an opponent is allowed. withdrawn
2011 DFB Abolish the „triple penalty“. rejected
2014 UEFA Abolish the „triple penalty“. rejected
2015 IFA General introduction of the VAR. rejected
2015 IFAB Sin bin for a 10-minute time penalty replace the yellow card. The time penalty should be controlled by the fourth official. The procedure has already been tested at the 2014 U16 tournaments. withdrawn

 

Handball

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1856 (Cambridge University) Any handball is prohibited.
1857 (Eton Field Game) Stopping the ball with the hand is allowed.
1858 (Harrow Football) Any handball is prohibited.
1858 (Sheffield FC) Holding and picking up the ball with the hands while it was bouncing on the ground is allowed. Pushing and bouncing the ball with hands is prohibited.
1862 (Eton Field Game) Catching the ball is allowed.
1862 (The Simplest Game) Catching the ball is allowed.
1862 (Sheffield FC) Any handball is prohibited.
1862 (Blackheath FC) Any handball is prohibited.
1863 (Cambridge University) Any handball is prohibited.
1863 (Shrewsbury School) Catching the ball is allowed.
1863 (FA) The last draft still allows handball (for discussion about hacking and handling see here (only German)), the published FA Rules forbid any handball.
1870 (FA) Any handball is prohibited whether the touch was intentional or unintentional (Upton Park FC).
1874 (FA) If the law is infringed, the opponent awards an indirect free kick (Harrow Chequers).
1878 (FA) If the handball happens near the own goal (no goalkeeper handball) and the referee considers the the ball would otherwise have went into the goal, a goal is obtained (Finchley, Old Harrovians).
1882 (FA) „Near the goal“ is defined as 2 yd in front of the goal (Sheffield FA).
1902 (IFAB) Only playing the ball intentionally with the hands is illegal play. This was emphasized several times, again, i. e.:

  • 1974: The ball must not be deliberately played with hands and arms to score a goal. (Since the end of the 19th century, only intentional handball has been illegal, but this has only been fixed in the law 12 and not in the law 10 until 1974) (FIFA)
  • 1991: Preventing a goalscoring opportunity by an intentional will be punished by a dismissal and also a penalty if the handling took place in the penalty area (FA).

 

Proposals for law amendments that were not accepted:

year club/association proposal reaction
1878 Romford Club and Great Marlow Club The suggestion to include the word „intentionally“. rejected
1870, 1871 Harrow Chequers Infringement of the law is penalized by an indirect free kick for the opponent. rejected (by Wanderers FC and Civil Service)
1881 Birmingham FA If a handball prevent a goal, the goal should be given. rejected
2015 FAW General prohibition of handball without a distinction between intentional and deliberate handball. withdrawn

 

The Fair Catch

Until the beginning of the 1860s, the Fair Catch was known in the codices of Blackheath FC, Shrewsbury School and the Football Association. The Fair Catch was only discussed in 1863 in the FA Rules, but remained until 1871. It also remained valid in the Sheffield FA Rules (from 1867) until 1871.

It was obtained by catching the ball which had not previously bounced on the ground. The catcher has to possibilities: 1) carving a mark with its heel into the ground after catching the ball and getting a free kick or 2) running with the ball (and can be charge roughly). The free kick was a direct free kick in Cambridge and in the FA Rules, and indirect free kick in Sheffield FA Rules.

 

Goalkeeper handling

Year (Source) new or changed laws (proposing club, if known)
1871 (FA) The player closest to his/her own goal may is allowed to handle the ball to protect his/her own goal (Upton Park).
1873 (FA) The goalkeeper must not carry the ball (Queen’s Park).
1874 (FA) The goalkeeper may not be changed in a flying manner. If the goalkeeper moved too far out of  his goal, he/she could not simply be replaced by another player in order not to risk a goal (Maidenhead FC, Gitanos FC). But „too far away“ was not regulated by that law.
1875 (FA) The passage „to protect the goal“ is replaced by „to defend the goal“ (Harrown Chequers).
1875 (FA) The goalkeeper may throw and hit the ball (Vale of Leven FC).
1875 (Sheffield FA) The player closest to his or her own goal goal may handle ball to protect his or her own goal.
1876 (Sheffield FA) The goalkeeper may throw and hit the ball with his hands in case of defense, but may not carry it.
1882 (FA) The goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball in the own half. Previously it had not been limited in the laws.
1897 (IFAB) If the goalkeeper is change during the match, it must the reported to the referee before the change is done.
1903 (IFAB) The goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball in the own goal area.
1903 (IFAB) If the goalkeeper change was not reported to and allowed by the referee and the new goalkeepers handle the ball, a penalty kick for the opponent is awarded.
1912 (IFAB) The goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball in the own penalty area.
1921 (DFB) (also IFAB?) The goalkeeper may carry the ball for a maximum of two steps.
1936 (IFAB) The goal kick must go directly onto the playing field and may not, for example, be played by a field player into the hands of his own goalkeeper (SFA).
1937 (IFAB) Not only a goal kick, but also a free kick may not be taken by a field player into the hands of the goalkeeper (FA).
1965 (IFAB) If a goalkeeper deliberately throws the ball into the face of an opponent or something similar, it is penalised by a penalty kick (SFA).
1967 (IFAB) If the goalkeeper wasted time, is/her team is penalised with an indirect free kick to be taken at the point of infringement (IFAB).
1967 (IFAB) It is irrelevant whether the goal keeper carries, bounces or throws the ball. The decisive factor is that the goalkeeper kept control of the ball and no other player had a chance to get to the ball.
1967 (IFAB) The goalkeeper may carry the ball for a maximum of four steps. In Germany already allowed in the 1950s (at least 1950-1958).
1968 (IFAB) Dribbling is not a handball. The goalkeeper may dribble the ball after holding the ball four steps and may not pick up the ball until another player has played the ball (FIFA).
1978 (IFAB) If a free kick is given to a team in its own goal area, the free kick may be taken from any point within the goal area (FA).
1980 (IFAB) The goalkeeper must stand on the line when the penalty kick is taken, but may now move on the line (FIFA).
1992 or 1997 (IFAB) The goalkeeper is not allowed to pick up a back-pass from players of his/her own team with hands, otherwise it will be committed an illegal handball that will be punished (The sources for the year are not unmistakeable.)
1997 (IFAB) The goalkeeper may carry the ball for a maximum of six seconds.

 

Proposals for law amendments that were not accepted:

year club/association proposal reaction
1870 Civil Service FA Rules: Goalkeepers are allowed to handle the ball. rejected
1874 Nottingham Forest FC FA Rules: Goalkeepers are allowed to handle the ball up to 6 yd in front of their own goal. rejected
1874 Royal Engineers FA Rules: Goalkeepers are allowed to handle the ball up to 10 yd in front of their own goal. rejected
1876 Great Marlow FA Rules: The FA Board shall determine the area in which the goalkeeper is allowed to handle the ball. rejected
1896 IFAB The goalkeeper can carry the ball up to two steps. rejected
1963 SFA A match is restarted with a direct free kick, if a goalkeeper deliberately throws the ball in the face of a player, spectator, referee or team official. withdrawn
1984 SFA Mitigating the 4-step-law for goalkeepers. withdrawn

Fußnoten   [ + ]

1. NN: Out and in. In: Der Spiegel 49 (1982). URL. http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-14356544.html (Last accessed: 07.07.2017). (only German).