Alle Artikel in: English

laws of the game 2021/2022

Laws of the Game 2021/2022 and their historical development

Here they are, the new Laws of the Game 2021/2022. Well, they haven’t been published yet, but they have been approved. A short summary has already been released, however. The IFAB today announced its changes for the football rules for the coming season. The deadline for the Laws of the Game 2021/2022 is 1 July 2021 (not 1 June as in the previous years), but competitions already in progress will continue to be played according to the Laws of the Game 2020/21. This means that the European Championship (m) will also be played according to the current law.

Goal referees in football

Recently I had a short discussion on Twitter with Ben van Maaren and Javier Bravo about goal referees. @ClioMZ Hello Petra, please read this thread. My Spanish friend, Javier Bravo, sent me this photo of a “juez de gol”, a goal line referee. They were active for about 20 years in Spain, from the 1910s till the 1930s. Isn’t that fascinating? Have you ever heard of this? https://t.co/zsRxL73C03 — RefBooks (@RefereeingBooks) July 12, 2020 I knew until now that they were used in the sport association of workers in Germany in the 1920s. And that the minute from AGM 1893 by The IFAB mentioned them. But I only suspected that these are not the only two mentions. Goals are too important for football – both economically and psychologically. But the fact that goal referees were appointed in Spain for probably more than 25 years, and that they were in the top league, also surprised me. • In the minute of The IFAB there is no criticism to the RFEF, the Spanish Football Federation. The association …

Cards in football – when were they introduced?

Cards in football were introduced not until the end of the 1960s. Cautions and dismissals were given orally. This was not always easy in international games due to language barriers. At the 1966 World Cup, German referee Rudolf Kreitlein tried in vain to send Argentine player Antonio RattĂ­n off the field. But he RattĂ­n did not understand or did not want to understand. He was a whole head taller than referee Kreitlein (who measured only 1.60 m / 5’3“) and finally had to be escorted from the field by the police. The FIFA Museum also reminds us of Rudolf Kreitlein. Here is the link to its blog story. England was Argentina’s opponent in this quarter-final and asked for clarification of this matter. Ken Aston was in charge of all the referees at this World Cup and wondered how this language barrier could be overcome. He later said that the idea came to him at a traffic light. Whether this explanation is true or a nice story cannot be clarified. But it happened: The yellow card …

Women’s football in Germany over 50 years ago

Women’s football was first permitted in Germany 50 years ago by the DFB. The association is celebrating this in 2020 and I watch the festivities with a suspicious eye. Because I fear that they will fuel the myth that there was virtually no women’s football in Germany before 1970. But that is by no means the case. This is evident simply from the fact that the DFB banned women’s football in 1955. Why should it have banned something that virtually did not exist back then? DFB should not celebrate „50 years of women’s football“, but „50 years ago we were open enough to allow women’s football“. But … Even that is not true. The scepticism, teasing and aversion were not suddenly history from October 31, 1970 onwards.

Football technology – A brief overview

Football technology has not been used in the game itself for very long. Football technology is becoming increasingly important. Football & technology have been together for 100 years. On the one hand, they have stimulated each other, on the other hand, they have led to discussions. For example, radio and television broadcasts contributed to the popularity of football and the enthusiasm for the sport had a positive effect on the media. On the other hand, discussions about slow motion in television broadcasts or the use of these as video evidence have been going on since the 1960s. Here is a brief overview: GLT (Goal line technology) After two years of intensive testing, The IFAB chose Hawkeye technology at a special meeting following the 2012 European Championship.

EPTS – The Laws of the Game 2020/21

EPTS is one of the technical possibilities in football, which has been used extensively for a few years. It is a collective term for technical means that transmit performance data and body values of the individual players. Be it the kilometers run, the fitness and other data, which can be tracked.

Remind Simon Rosenberger

Simon Rosenberger was a German referee and football pioneer and supporter with heart and soul, who was committed to the idea that the game of football and the rules should be interpreted in the same way throughout Germany at that time. He worked for the magazine Kicker with Walther Bensemann and the DFB, the German national association. The interpretation of the rules was a big problem in the 1920s, because not only the version of the Laws of the Game published by the DFB deviated from the international rules. No, the interpretation of the DFB rules also varied from regional association to regional association and also from referee to referee. Rosenberger encountered obstacles in his plans – not only among club officials and the press, but also within the referees. Born in Munich and a Jewish believer, Rosenberger worked in the first half of the 1920s in Stuttgart as a sport journalist for Kicker in Konstanz and Stuttgart, and in the second half as the founder and publisher of the DFB refereeing newspaper in Cologne. …

Handball – The Laws of the Game 2020/21

The handball is discussed throughout. It is always a question of when a handball is really a handball. What is allowed? What is prohibited? At this point, we would like to discuss the textual amendments to clarify the handball law in the Laws of the Game 2020/21 in a more understandable way.

Laws of the Game: Evolution of the wording

The Laws of the Game are the name of the football rules. The rules of the association football. Since 1858 the rules of Sheffield FC exist, since 1863 the FA Rules. In the beginning the laws contained only a few sentences, in the meantime there are several pages with several illustrations for clarification.

Why laws can not always be fair

Just some thoughts. Law ≠ Justice. A law is standardised and therefore objective, justice is a moral value and therefore subjective. Interpretations should make law more fair. – Keyword „spirit of the game“. – But they also make the rules „subjective“. Keyword „grey area“. Meaning that for a person this is fair, or at least the fairest possibility within the limitations of the rules – and with regard to the game. For another person it’s not fair. So it can not only differ from referee to referee.

Football statistics 1932

Here is a wonderful Dutch data statistic from 1932, which Jurryt van de Vooren has published in his blog Finally, in 1932 a remarkable visualization was made of DHC against GSV, part of which here. Soccer statistics seem to have started in the 1930s, even if only occasionally. By the way, Central Europe won 3-1, despite a goal by Bakhuys. But you could already have seen that in the statistics of that day. he writes in this article (in Dutch) and gives further examples.

Fellowes‘ The English Game – how true is the story?

The new mini-series by Julian Fellowes, The English Game, is available on Netflix since 20 March 2020. As already announced in the trailer, the story is based on true facts. But how much? . CN: Spoiler & Demytification (yes, the word demytification actually exists) . . . Football matches in English Game The game was in the FA Cup this season and the first game ended in a draw, the last one was won by the Old Etonians. However, a second draw was left out. This game was scheduled to be played three times. Based on the narrative, one could assume that Blackburn FC won the FA Cup in the 1879/80 season against the Old Etonians. However, no year is shown before the start of the match. For here Fellowes mixed a lot for the series final: In the 1870/80 season, Clapham Rovers won the FA Cup in the final against Oxford University, the Old Etonians lost to the eventual winner in the 5th round and Blackburn Rovers won against Darwen FC in the 2nd …

Two referees in football instead of VAR?

Why don’t we have two referees on the football pitch instead of VAR? This sounds like a plausible idea that is worth thinking about. But it’s not a new idea. Not new at all Since the 19th century there have been repeated discussions and attempts to run the game with two referees on the field. Reasons were on the one hand to make the stoppage time for decisions shorter and on the other hand to have a „back-up“ to penalise fouls, which neither the referee nor his*her assistant referees noticed during other games.

In dubio pro reo principle in football?

In fact, the in dubio pro reo principle that the attacking player is proved right in case of doubt, i.e. the game is not interrupted, has never existed in football. This is not about the principle of presumption of innocence. Sometimes this principle is confused with the existing advantage rule. However, this rule is used when a team has a disadvantage (for example a foul play), but remains in possession of the ball.

The back-pass rule

The introduction of the back-pass rule in the early 1990s As early as 1981, at the Annual General Meeting of The IFAB, the issue of the back-pass and wasting time was discussed. In this year, the committee was of the opinion that it was not a waste of time, as the opposing players had the right to intervene. This opinion changed significantly during and after the 1990 World Cup. In 1991, The IFAB allowed FIFA to prohibit the back-pass as an experiment at the 1991 U17 Men’s World Cup. The experiment was successful and since the 1992/93 season, the deliberately back-pass is prohibited.

The Laws of the Game of the Association of ball games in Berlin of 1900

A decade after the laws of the game of the Association of German Football Players of 1890/1892 the Association of ball games in Berlin published its football laws, which obtained for the complete association. They are much more comprehensive than the rules of the Association of German Football Players and clearly resemble the DFB rules of 1903 and thus the Laws of the Game. Exceptions are the tossing of a drop ball and the annotation that a penalty kick can only be given if the opposing team claims it. The laws 1 [The field] The maximum length and width of the field shall be 180 metres and 90 metres respectively (the minimum shall be 90 metres by 45 metres) and the four corners of the field shall be marked by flags (corner flags). The goals each consist of two vertical posts, 2.40 metres high, which are separated by two 7ÂĽ metres and which are connected by a crossbar or by a tight string. These goals are located in the middle of the short ends. A …

Das FuĂźballregeln Laws of the Game Wordle 2016

The Laws of the Game 2019/20 and their historical development

Which are the changes of the Laws of the Game for the season 2019/20? Are they changed before?Nachspielzeiten will check it for you. This is the English version of Die FuĂźballregeln 2019/2020 und die historische Entwicklung. The IFAB announced the law amendments of the Laws of the Game for the season 2019/20. They will became valid on June 1st, 2019, but the final of the Men’s Champions League on this day will still be played according to the LotG of the 2018/19 season, as the game still counts for this season. But the Women’s World Championship, starting on 7th June 2019, will then be played according to the new laws. As expected, all law amendments were adopted. In the run-up most of them became already public, so that I could already deal with them (see article Possible IFAB law amendments 2019 from a historical perspective). On 14th March 2019, the IFAB published all amendments as a summary and in detail. Ensuing, I present the law amendments and, if possible, add the historical development. Not included …

Possible IFAB law amendments 2019 from a historical perspective

On 2nd March 2019, the IFAB will discuss on the law amendments for the season 2019/20. The agenda only briefly reflects the laws for which changes in the law have been proposed. Chaled Nahar described the exact rules for the ARD Sportschau website (in German). And I would like to offer a historical view of the possible changes. The IFAB The IFAB met for the first time on 2nd June 1886 and consisted of the national football associations of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (since 1921 Northern Ireland). In 1914, the FIFA, which had been founded ten years earlier, was added and initially had two votes (which meant that it could be overruled by the four British associations). In the meantime, the four UK members have four votes and also the FIFA has four votes, with FIFA having to vote unanimously.   Law 8 – The Start and Restart of Play: Dropped ball According to this year’s proposal, nothing should change in its execution or in the reason for its use. The change is that …

Rules around 1870 – Football, Rugby and Miscellaneous

In Charles William Alcock’s short piece of writing The Book of Rules of the Game of Football, here online in a 1871 edition from New York, the well-known footballer of the first decades of the FA republished seven contemporary rules. For most of them it isn’t mentioned when the rules were lastly changed, but for some of them I could  trace it back. They are: FA Rules, 1870 Sheffield FA Rules, 1869 Eton Field Game, 1862 Winchester College, before 1871 Rugby School, between 1863 and 1870 Harrow School, before 1871 Cheltenham College, before 1871. In contrast to the comparisons published rules of the late 1840s, late 1850s, early 1860s (all only in German) and their comparison and my thoughts on it, in this post also rules with allowed handling and hacking are considered, viz. the rules of rugby (at the Rugby School in the 1860s) and mixed variants (Winchester College and Cheltenham College, partly also Eton Field Game). In this post I want to illustrate the diversity of the possibility football matches of the 1860s. …

Football Rules without handling 1847-1863

After the piecemeal comparison of some different sets of rules for football without or with little allowed handling, all of them will are compared in this blogpost. The individual comparisons (all in German): Rules, end of 1840s Rules, end of 1850s Rules, begin of 1860s   The field of the play The measures of the field of the play were only mentioned in the 1860s. Since they are quite similar here, it can be assumed that they have already been aligned and that unwritten agreements were therefore also in place. Goal measures Only in Eton there was a height limit which was already 7 ft in 1847 and did not change afterwards. All other rules did not mention any height limitation within this period. The width of the goal varied, if it was specified at all. In Eton it remained constant at 11 ft, in Harrow (1858) goals were 4 yd wide, in Cambridge (1863) 5 yd, at the FA (1863) even 8 yd. It seems that goals used to be much narrower than today. …

The IFAB from 1886 to 1914

This blogpost is about its development until the First World War. The minutes of the individual meetings are linked at the end of the article. The Statutes of the IFAB Until 1893 the union of the national associations from England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales called itself International Board. In the meeting on 17th July 1893 this board adopted its constitution: The board is called the International Football Association Board. The four associations, namely the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the English Football Association (FA), the Walloon Association of Football (WAF) and the Irish Football Association (IFA), each send two representatives to the meetings. Supplement on 4th April 1913: Two FIFA representatives were added to the board. The board shall discuss and decide on rule changes and, at the request of the associations and national general meetings, matters relating to association football in its international relations. Suggestions and amendments concerning the regulations must be received by 1st February each year and will be printed and distributed for the national general meetings on 1st March. These two dates have …

The origin of the IFAB and its changing rules and regulations

This article treat the founding period of the IFAB during the years 1882 to 1886.   The International Football Association Board, or IFAB for short, discusses the football rules at the first of its two annual meetings in February or March each year. This is for its members, namely the associations of England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland (until 1921 Ireland) and all member associations of FIFA, which was founded in 1904. Not all FIFA members are represented, but four of them. The four FIFA representatives can only vote en bloc, the four representatives from England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland separately. A two-thirds majority is required for rule changes so that neither FIFA nor the four founding members of the IFAB can outvote each other. Changes to the rules of the game will come into force on 1st July. The IFAB was founded in London on 2nd June 1886 by the associations of England (FA), Scotland (SFA), Ireland (IFA) and Wales (FAW). Already on 6th December 1882 there was a meeting of these four federations …

The development of the FA Rules from 1863 to 1882

In 1863 the FA was founded in London. The annual general meetings of the members [1]From 1876 an entrance fee of 5s was due; the annual fee until 1868 was 1 guinea, then another 5s – the latter was about the weekly wage of a worker. there was a board (chairman, secretary, treasurer) as well as a committee whose size changed in the first twenty years (1863: 4 – 1868: 10 – 1872: 17 – 1880: 16). The FA members were forbidden to play games against non FA members and to use other rules than the FA Rules. These were valid until 1874, from their decision in September (until 1865) and February (1866-1874) respectively. From 1874 they became valid at the beginning of the coming season in the autumn of the same year. In contrast to the evaluation of the Sheffield Rules, here I do not proceed chronologically, but (rule) thematically. I hope that this will make it easier for you to read. At this point I would also like to refer to the study …

Sheffield FA and London FA 1877

In 1877 the Sheffield FA adopted the FA Rules after several years of trying to find compromises. Between 1863 and 1877, there were meetings again and again, especially between John Charles Shaw and Charles William Alcock. There were attempts at rapprochement and open dissonances between the two associations on the rules for association football. A representative of Sheffield FC, from 1867 the Sheffield FA, was always present at the annual general meetings of the FA in London and also represented on the committee. But I don’t know what the relationship of Sheffield FC or FA to the London FA was like, because all members had to play according to FA Rules, which was definitely not practiced in Sheffield. (If you know it, please use the comments.) Sheffield FA and Football Association organized a game for December 2, 1871 with Sir John Charles Clegg, a game between selections of both associations to try out the rules of the other. Shaw and Alcock were the captains of the two selections. But no agreement was reached yet. But …

Modern Football was born in the 19th century

The birth of modern football in England Modern football was born in the second half the 19th century. The first seed was scattered in 1850 with an extension of the Factory Acts, the Compromise Act. Among other things it introduced the end of work at 2 pm on Saturdays. This gave factory workers free time for the first time. Football was a sport that cost relatively little money and some factory owners supported the sporting activities of their workers, provided equipment and sometimes paid for trips to away games. A win-win situation, because this way the owners were sure that their workers did not spend their free time lazing around with excessive alcohol consumption and the soccer-loving workers had an alternative – also for miners and their physically and mentally exhausting work underground. There were also many works clubs at the time, some of which still exist today, such as the Dial Square munitions factory (Arsenal FC), the Thames Iron Works (West Ham) or the Newton Heath LYR Company (Manchester United).

What the English teach us most of all was that the ball must not be kicked in the air, but rolled; that is the quintessence of the game

On 19 February 1899 the Wiener Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung[1]Cf. NN: The Oxford team in Vienna. In: Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung [Vienna], 19.02.1899. p. 192. Last accessed: 04.03.2018. brought attention to the travel of the Oxford University Association Football Club to Austria for matches in Prague and Vienna during the Easter holidays. Oxford University AFC was 1899 a very successful club of the Football Association, still existing in 2018, but now playing in the league of the football teams of British universities and colleges of the Midlands region (around Birmingham). The matches against the Deutschen Fussball Club and Slavia (both from Prague) took place at the end of March, the matches in Vienna against a „mixed [nation] team“ and „German [Austrian] team“ of the Athletik-Sport-Club at the beginning of April. The article also introduces the players of Oxford University AFC with information about the previously attended college, size, weight, position and other sports they played. At 3:30 pm on 2nd April and 3rd April the matches were played in the Prater (now Ernst Happel Stadium).[2]Cf. NN: The Oxford team …