A few weeks ago I finished my series on the development of every single law in the Laws of the Game. Now another lookup that is not part of the rules: How was the winner determined in a decision game? And why is this rule not included in the Laws of the Game?
The last question can be answered quickly and easily: It is no part of the game. That’s not entirely consistent, because the coin toss before the start of the game is again present in the rules.
Let’s start at the very beginning of the history of modern football: the Cambridge Rules and Uppingham Rules don’t deal with this decision. The rules of Sheffield FC described the Rouge for 1862-1868, the FA Rules the Touchdowns during the season 1866/67. They made it possible that there were only a few undecided games left.
Sheffield FA, founded in 1868, did not take over the rouge, but introduced the coin toss after the game in 1871. IFAB introduced extra time of 2x 15 minutes in 1898, followed by a coin toss if the game ended in a draw even after extra time.
In 1965, the still-current away goals rule was introduced for deciding matches with first and second legs (from 1969 onwards in UEFA competitions): goals scored away count for more than scored at home. Only if two exactly the same results were scored the game is continued by extra time. An example: If the first leg goes from Club A vs. Club B 2:1 and the second leg Club B vs. Club A 1:0 it is 2:2 in addition, but still Club B continues, because it has score a goal away, but Club A not.
In 1970 was the next change: If it there was no decision during extra time, the game is continued by the well-known penalty shootout, no more by toss. For this there are first of all five penalty kicks from each team, if not one team is in front unassailable. If no decision has been made afterwards, one player of each team will always play against a player of the other team. As soon as one player scores and the other not, the decision is made in favour of the goalscorer’s team. Each player must play once before a player repeatedly takes the penalty kick. Players who have been substituted or sent off are not allowed to play. The referee must ensure that the number of players per team on both sides is the same before the penalty kicks are taken.
In between, the introduction and abolition of the Golden Goal (1994-2002, the first goal in extra time decides) and Silver Goal (2002-2004, the first extra half time can decide, if a team is up) led to small changes in the decision making, but since 2004 both extra half times are played again completely.
By the way, the Golden Goal was not invented in 1994. In ice hockey the equivalent is called Sudden Death and in football a variant of the Golden Goal was also used to find the winner: In the final of the Sheffield Cromwell Cup1)Named after its founder, Oliver Cromwell, manager of Alexandra Theatre, whose competition took place only in 1868. Cromwell was himself a Garrick FC player. Sheffield teams that had existed for a maximum of two years could participate – a total of four teams took part. Besides Garrick and Wednesday there were Exchange and Wellington. 1868, Sheffield Wednesday FC (founded 1867) and Garrick FC (founded 1866, abandoned 1878) faced each other in the final. Since neither a goal nor a rouge could be scored after 90 minutes, the captains of the teams agreed to continue playing until a goal was scored. Sheffield Wednesday FC won the trophy.
The photo by Markus Unger, CC-BY 2.0 URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elfmeterschießen#/media/File:Penalty_kick_Lahm_Cech_Champions_League_Final_2012.jpg (last accessed: 27.10.2017) has been selected and edited as basis.
Fußnoten [ + ]
|1.||↑||Named after its founder, Oliver Cromwell, manager of Alexandra Theatre, whose competition took place only in 1868. Cromwell was himself a Garrick FC player. Sheffield teams that had existed for a maximum of two years could participate – a total of four teams took part. Besides Garrick and Wednesday there were Exchange and Wellington.|